Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study sample across disease groups

Patient characteristicNo MetS or diabetes (n = 4,036)MetS without diabetes (n = 1,686)Diabetes (n = 881)P
Age (years)62 (10)64 (10.0)65 (9.6)<0.0001
Male (%)494152<0.0001
Ethnicity (%)
 Caucasian424019<0.0001
 African American262538<0.0001
 Hispanic192631<0.0001
 Chinese13912<0.0001
Ten-year predicted Framingham CHD risk (%) (18)8.5 (6.9)12.3 (8.7)17.4 (11.5)<0.0001
Ten-year predicted Framingham CVD risk (%) (19)11.6 (8.7)16.8 (9.1)22.9 (8.4)<0.0001
Prediabetes (%)||638<0.0001
Total cholesterol (mmol/L [mg/dL])5.0 [194] (34)5.1 [197] (37)4.9 [188] (39)<0.0001
LDL-C (mmol/L [mg/dL])3.1 [118] (30)3.1 [118] (32)2.9 [111] (33)<0.0001
HDL-C (mmol/L [mg/dL])1.4 [55] (15)1.1 [43] (10)1.2 [46] (13)<0.0001
Dyslipidemia (%)#333461<0.0001
History of hypertension (%)*326466<0.0001
Current smoker (%)†1313130.97
Microalbuminuria (% 30–299 mg/L)4.59.821<0.0001
Macroalbuminuria (% ≥300 mg/L)0.41.36.2<0.0001
Lipid-lowering medication use (%)‡121927<0.0001
Antihypertensive medication use (%)§255263<0.0001
CAC119 (365)157 (417)255 (596)<0.0001
CAC score categories (%)
 CAC 0554538<0.0001
 CAC 1–99252827<0.0001
 CAC 100–399121617<0.0001
 CAC 400+81117<0.0001
Common CIMT (mm)0.84 (0.2)0.90 (0.2)0.93 (0.2)<0.0001
Internal CIMT (mm)1.0 (0.5)1.1 (0.7)1.3 (0.7)<0.0001
  • Data are means (SD) or percent. ||Defined as fasting blood glucose of 100–125 and not on glucose-lowering medications. #Defined as elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C )≥100 if diabetes or ≥130 otherwise or on lipid-lowering medication. *A history of hypertension and the use of blood pressure medications for hypertension were obtained from medical history. †Current smoking was defined as having smoked a cigarette in the last 30 days. ‡Included self-report and use of statin, fibrate, niacin, and bile acid resins. §A history of hypertension and the use of blood pressure medications for hypertension were obtained from medical history.