Table 2

Children assessed at age 2 years: pregnancy outcome data

Metformin (n = 154)Insulin (n = 164)P value
Neonatal
 Gestational age at birth (weeks)38.4 ± 1.338.5 ± 1.20.32
 Birth weight (g)3,325 ± 5583,356 ± 5300.62
 Birth weight percentile52.8 ± 29.152.2 ± 30.80.87
 Birth weight below 10th percentile14 (9.1)15 (9.1)
 Birth weight above 90th percentile20 (13.0)23 (14.0)
 Head circumference (cm)34.8 ± 1.534.8 ± 1.50.98
 Crown-heel length (cm)50.1 ± 2.650.3 ± 2.40.60
 Crown-rump length (cm)33.0 ± 2.632.9 ± 2.50.55
 Chest circumference (cm)33.9 ± 2.433.9 ± 2.50.92
 Abdominal circumference (cm)32.8 ± 2.832.4 ± 3.00.30
 Mid-upper arm circumference (cm)11.1 ± 1.311.0 ± 1.30.63
 Triceps skinfold thickness (mm)4.77 ± 1.24.82 ± 1.10.72
 Subscapular skinfold thickness (mm)4.96 ± 1.24.94 ± 1.10.93
 Ponderal index (birth weight [g] × 100/crown-heel length [cm]3)2.63 ± 0.32.63 ± 0.280.85
Maternal
 Glycemic control from randomization until delivery
  Mean fasting capillary glucose0.71
   Tertile 1 (mean 4.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L)55 (35.7)66 (40.2)
   Tertile 2 (mean 5.1 ± 0.1 mmol/L)61 (39.6)64 (39.0)
   Tertile 3 (mean 5.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L)36 (23.4)34 (20.7)
  Mean postprandial capillary glucose0.69
   Tertile 1 (mean 5.6 ± 0.2 mmol/L)67 (43.5)65 (39.6)
   Tertile 2 (mean 6.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L)51 (33.1)57 (34.8)
   Tertile 3 (mean 7.2 ± 0.7 mmol/L)34 (22.1)42 (25.6)
 Hypertensive complications
  Gestational hypertension7 (4.5)5 (3.0)0.69
  Preeclampsia5 (3.2)8 (4.9)0.65
 Infant feeding 6–8 weeks postpartum0.72
  Breast feeding74 (48.1)84 (51.2)
  Bottle feeding30 (19.5)35 (21.3)
  Both breast and bottle42 (27.3)39 (23.8)
  Not seen8 (5.2)6 (3.7)
  • Data expressed as mean ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise detailed.