Table 2

Analysis of the association between chronotype and type 2 diabetes in the NHS2

Chronotype
IntermediateEarlyLate
Prevalence analysis: follow-up period 2005–2011n = 34,686; 822 casesn = 22,702; 413 casesn = 7,227; 237 cases
 Model 111.000.74 (0.66–0.83)1.39 (1.20–1.61)
 Model 221.000.82 (0.73–0.93)1.17 (1.01–1.36)
 Model 331.000.87 (0.77–0.98)1.04 (0.89–1.21)
Incidence analysis: follow-up period 2009–2011n = 33,825; 177 casesn = 22,089; 93 casesn = 7,029; 49 cases
 Model 111.000.77 (0.60–0.99)1.34 (0.98–1.84)
 Model 221.000.88 (0.68–1.13)1.11 (0.81–1.53)
 Model 331.000.93 (0.73–1.20)1.01 (0.73–1.38)
  • Data are MVOR (95% CI) in the prevalence analysis (n = 64,615; 1,472 cases) and hazard ratio (95% CI) in the incidence analysis (n = 62,943; 319 cases).

  • 1Age-adjusted model.

  • 2Additionally adjusted for family history of diabetes (yes/no), smoking status (never, past, current 1–14 cigarettes/day, current ≥15 cigarettes/day), alcohol intake (0, 0.1–5, 5.1–10, 10.1–15, >15 g/day), physical activity (quintiles of MET-h/week), diet score (quintiles, AHEI as assessed in 2007), oral contraceptive use (ever, never), menopausal status (pre-, postmenopause), postmenopausal hormone use (premenopause, ever, never), sleep duration (<5, 6, 7, 8, >9 h as assessed in 2009), median annual household income ($, in tertiles), depressive symptoms (yes/no based on regular medication use or self-reported physician diagnosis), and cumulative rotating night shift work exposure since 1989 (<1, 1–10, ≥10 years).

  • 3Additionally adjusted for BMI (<25, 25–30, 30–35, >35 kg/m2).