Table 2

Cox proportional hazards regression examining relation of CHD and CVD events with CAC and CIMT categories among those with diabetes, MetS, or neither condition

No MetS or diabetes (n = 4,036)MetS without diabetes (n = 1,686)Diabetes (n = 881)
CHD events‡123 (3.0)100 (5.9)76 (8.6)
CVD events§168 (4.2)133 (7.9)109 (12.4)
CAC 1–99 vs. 0
 CHD2.6 (1.4–4.9)**3.9 (1.8–8.5)**2.9 (1.3–6.8)*
 CVD2.3 (1.4–3.8)**2.5 (1.4–4.4)**2.0 (1.1–3.7)*
CAC 100–399 vs. 0
 CHD6.4 (3.5–12.0)***8.4 (3.8–18.3)***3.3 (1.4–7.8)**
 CVD4.3 (2.5–7.0)***4.1 (2.3–7.5)**2.3 (1.2–4.5)**
CAC 400+ vs. 0
 CHD9.5 (4.9–18.1)***11.9 (5.2–27.0)***6.2 (2.7–14.2)***
 CVD5.3 (3.1–9.1)***6.7 (3.6–12.6)***4.0 (2.1–7.5)***
CIMT|| 2nd quartile vs. 1st quartile
 CHD1.4 (0.7–2.8)0.8 (0.3–1.7)1.1 (0.4–3.0)
 CVD1.0 (0.6–1.7)0.8 (0.4–1.6)0.6 (0.3–1.4)
CIMT 3rd quartile vs. 1st quartile
 CHD1.8 (0.9–3.5)1.2 (0.6–2.5)1.0 (0.4–2.8)
 CVD1.0 (0.6–1.7)0.9 (0.5–1.8)0.7 (0.3–1.4)
CIMT 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile
 CHD2.8 (1.4–5.4)**1.6 (0.7–3.3)1.7 (0.7–4.3)
 CVD1.3 (0.8–2.2)1.2 (0.6–2.2)1.0 (0.5–2.0)
  • Data are n (%) or adjusted HRs (95% CI). HRs adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and traditional RFs used in the Framingham risk score (systolic blood pressure, smoking, total cholesterol, HDL-C, and antihypertensive medication use). ‡Included all CHD events, such as MI, angina, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or CHD death. §Defined as a CHD event, stroke, stroke death, other atherosclerotic death, or other CVD death. *P value < 0.05. **P < 0.01. ***P < 0.001. ||The z score maximal IMT is defined with a mean of 0 and an SD of 1. To achieve this, we used a prior constructed composite z score for overall maximal IMT by summing the values of the two carotid IMT sides after standardization (subtraction of the mean and division by the SD of each measure) and then dividing by the SD of the sum.