Table 1

Changes in clinical measures, physical activity patterns, and diet after 0.5 and 1.5 years within and between study groups of participants who completed the intervention

Intervention group (n = 393) (100%)Usual-care group (n = 371) (100%)
BaselineΔ 0.5 yearsΔ 1.5 yearsP Δ INTBaselineΔ 0.5 yearsΔ 1.5 yearsP Δ UCP BET
Blood glucose values*393 (100.0)358 (91.1)359 (91.3)371 (100.0)315 (84.9)322 (86.8)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)5.61 ± 0.54−0.08 ± 0.42−0.10 ± 0.41<0.00015.60 ± 0.51−0.10 ± 0.40−0.08 ± 0.46<0.00010.77
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/L)5.87 ± 1.66−0.05 ± 1.380.13 ± 1.470.095.95 ± 1.80−0.15 ± 1.490.18 ± 1.540.0040.49
BMI and waist circumference*373 (94.9)350 (89.1)330 (84.0)351 (94.6)318 (85.7)305 (82.2)
BMI (kg/m2)29.0 ± 4.4−0.3 ± 1.1−0.2 ± 1.70.00328.5 ± 4.1−0.2 ± 1.0−0.1 ± 1.60.0050.66
Waist circumference (cm)99.9 ± 11.7−0.7 ± 4.5−0.4 ± 6.50.00898.7 ± 10.7−0.2 ± 4.30.3 ± 5.60.260.35
Physical activity and diet*372 (94.7)345 (87.8)333 (84.7)345 (93.0)300 (80.9)287 (77.4)
Total activity (min/week)1,502 ± 914248 ± 949−84 ± 1023<0.00011,629 ± 1,00531 ± 1014−290 ± 994<0.00010.02
Activity (average to high intensity)658 ± 564−1 ± 46170 ± 5620.10649 ± 52128 ± 49429 ± 5120.570.34
Total energy intake (Kcal)2,047 ± 622−262 ± 390−278 ± 466<0.0011,979 ± 576−198 ± 387−197 ± 449<0.0010.11
Total fat intake (% E)35.0 ± 6.2−0.3 ± 6.0−0.5 ± 6.20.3934.4 ± 6.10.5 ± 5.40.5 ± 6.40.240.13
Total saturated fat intake (% E)11.8 ± 2.7−0.2 ± 2.4−0.3 ± 2.50.1111.8 ± 2.50.3 ± 2.00.2 ± 2.30.050.03
Total dietary fiber intake (g/MJ)3.5 ± 1.0−0.3 ± 0.8−0.1 ± 0.8<0.0013.5 ± 1.0−0.4 ± 0.7−0.3 ± 0.8<0.0010.01
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%). % E = percentage of total energy intake. P Δ INT = P value for the analysis regarding change over time within the intervention group (n = 393). P Δ UC = P value for the analysis regarding change over time within the usual-care group (n = 371). P BET = P value for the analysis regarding differences in change over time between the groups (group* measurement point interaction).

  • *Number of participants differs over time as a result of missing values. Values in boldface type are statistically significant.