Table 1

Selected standardized coefficients (all initially measured as rate per 1,000 persons with diabetes and based on z score and with 95% CIs) using simple, multiple, or spatially weighted regression to predict incidence of LEA among diabetic Medicare beneficiaries by HRR for 2008*

Simple regressionMultiple regressionMultiple regression with spatial weights
Medicare population−0.06 (−0.16 to 0.03)−0.16 (−0.41 to 0.09)−0.11 (−0.34 to 0.12)
Prevalence of diabetes0.12 (0.03–0.22)#−0.09 (−0.17 to 0.01)−0.18 (−0.31 to −0.05)+
Prevalence of PAD−0.05 (−0.15 to 0.04)0.01 (−0.18 to 0.19)0.06 (−0.18 to 0.30)
Prevalence of DFU0.04 (−0.05 to 0.14)0.14 (0.07–0.21)#0.11 (0.02–0.20)#
Total medical costs paid by Medicare0.58 (−0.04 to 0.16)−0.03 (−0.12 to 0.07)−0.01 (−0.09 to 0.07)
Mortality rate among those with a DFU0.26 (0.17–0.36)^0.13 (0.04–0.23)+0.11 (0.01–0.21)#
Total medical costs paid by Medicare associated with DFU−0.03 (−0.12 to 0.06)−0.04 (−0.17 to 0.08)−0.01 (−0.10 to 0.08)
Prevalence of macrovascular complications0.19 (0.09–0.28)^0.04 (−0.09 to 0.16)−0.01 (−0.13 to 0.11)
Prevalence of microvascular complications0.14 (0.04–0.24)+0.09 (−0.02 to 0.18)0.04 (−0.05 to 0.13)
Age (mean)−0.27 (−0.36 to −0.17)^−0.29 (−0.39 to −0.19)^−0.17 (−0.27 to −0.07)+
Percent female0.10 (0.01–0.20)#0.02 (−0.08 to 0.13)0.01 (−0.09 to 0.11)
Percent African American0.23 (0.14–0.33)+0.27 (0.16 to 0.39)^0.18 (0.07–0.29)+
Prevalence of physicians−0.17 (−0.27 to −0.08)+0.07 (−0.04 to 0.18)0.04 (−0.06 to 0.14)
Prevalence of podiatrists0.07 (−0.02 to 0.17)0.02 (−0.07 to 0.11)0.03 (−0.01 to 0.07)
Socioeconomic status (13)−0.29 (−0.38 to −0.20)^−0.48 (−0.64 to −0.33)^−0.45 (−0.53 to −0.38)^
  • *All listed variables were included in the multiple regression models.

  • #P < 0.05.

  • +P < 0.001.

  • ^P < 0.0001.