Table 2

Characteristics of the cohort at baseline, according to income quintile and education

Income quintiles (1 = lowest, 5 = highest)Educational attainment
Q1Q2Q3Q4Q5≤9 years10–12 yearsCollege/university
Individuals, n5,7954,8054,7994,7074,8144,05213,1337,549
Males2,583 (44.6)1,999 (41.6)2,275 (47.4)2,913 (61.9)3,633 (75.5)2,272 (56.1)7,306 (55.6)3,735 (49.5)
Age (years)33.56 (16.35)40.27 (15.20)39.76 (12.42)40.43 (10.94)43.12 (10.65)43.57 (17.25)38.25 (13.39)38.73 (11.98)
Onset age (years)14.16 (7.35)15.43 (7.74)15.71 (7.84)15.92 (7.71)16.78 (7.74)16.58 (7.79)15.23 (7.71)15.54 (7.64)
Income, n (%)
 Q1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A1,579 (39.0)2,804 (21.4)1,281 (17.0)
 Q2N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A927 (22.9)2,770 (21.1)1,067 (14.1)
 Q3N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A631 (15.6)2,878 (21.9)1,283 (17.0)
 Q4N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A565 (13.9)2,592 (19.7)1,548 (20.5)
 Q5N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A350 (8.6)2,089 (15.9)2,370 (31.4)
Education, n (%)
 ≤9 years1,579 (27.9)927 (19.5)631 (13.2)565 (12.0)350 (7.3)N/AN/AN/A
 10–12 years2,804 (49.5)2,770 (58.1)2,878 (60.1)2,592 (55.1)2,089 (43.4)N/AN/AN/A
 College/university1,281 (22.6)1,067 (22.4)1,283 (26.8)1,548 (32.9)2,370 (49.3)N/AN/AN/A
Marital status, n (%)
 Single4,036 (69.6)2,759 (57.4)2,604 (54.3)2,350 (49.9)1,811 (37.6)2,037 (50.3)7,507 (57.2)3,877 (51.4)
 Divorced265 (4.6)545 (11.3)487 (10.1)471 (10.0)498 (10.3)483 (11.9)1,210 (9.2)567 (7.5)
 Married/cohabiting1,430 (24.7)1,417 (29.5)1,669 (34.8)1,844 (39.2)2,440 (50.7)1,415 (34.9)4,292 (32.7)3,055 (40.5)
 Widowed64 (1.1)84 (1.7)39 (0.8)42 (0.9)65 (1.4)117 (2.9)124 (0.9)50 (0.7)
Immigrant, n (%)553 (9.5)314 (6.5)294 (6.1)217 (4.6)177 (3.7)345 (8.5)667 (5.1)469 (6.2)
CSII, n (%)764 (15.4)553 (13.2)633 (14.9)620 (14.6)628 (14.6)324 (9.2)1,689 (14.5)1,173 (17.5)
HbA1c (mmol/mol)65.52 (16.76)65.12 (15.40)64.37 (14.56)63.69 (13.33)61.75 (12.38)66.64 (15.72)65.35 (14.91)60.72 (13.07)
eGFR (mL/min)98.30 (32.35)89.62 (28.83)91.29 (25.94)90.99 (23.86)90.03 (24.18)92.02 (31.60)92.58 (27.09)91.02 (24.51)
Systolic BP (mmHg)124.51 (16.56)127.38 (17.07)126.66 (15.11)127.35 (15.15)128.51 (14.70)130.53 (17.68)126.82 (15.72)125.03 (14.58)
Chol-to-HDL ratio3.16 (1.09)3.12 (1.04)3.08 (0.98)3.13 (1.09)3.09 (0.94)3.23 (1.09)3.17 (1.04)2.97 (0.95)
BMI (kg/m2)25.12 (4.73)25.72 (4.72)25.83 (4.34)25.81 (4.00)25.61 (3.59)25.88 (4.72)25.86 (4.45)25.03 (3.75)
Smoker, n (%)772 (14.3)734 (15.8)602 (12.9)515 (11.1)320 (6.7)833 (21.6)1,663 (13.1)425 (5.8)
Exercise, n (%)
 Never446 (11.3)362 (10.9)290 (8.7)286 (8.4)247 (7.0)354 (12.8)910 (9.8)351 (6.6)
 <1 time/week505 (12.8)447 (13.5)438 (13.1)437 (12.9)467 (13.3)404 (14.6)1,247 (13.4)628 (11.8)
 1–2 times/week966 (24.5)858 (25.9)950 (28.4)980 (28.9)1,137 (32.4)684 (24.6)2,560 (27.6)1,625 (30.4)
 3–5 times/week1,056 (26.8)814 (24.6)892 (26.7)889 (26.2)960 (27.3)620 (22.3)2,363 (25.5)1,592 (29.8)
 Daily972 (24.6)833 (25.1)772 (23.1)801 (23.6)703 (20.0)713 (25.7)2,204 (23.7)1,143 (21.4)
Albuminuria, n (%)
 Microalbuminuria598 (11.7)684 (15.1)671 (14.7)647 (14.2)635 (13.5)679 (18.3)1,754 (14.2)787 (10.8)
 Macroalbuminuria268 (5.2)438 (9.7)316 (6.9)286 (6.3)269 (5.7)336 (9.1)922 (7.5)312 (4.3)
Antihypertensives, n (%)1,273 (23.1)1,669 (35.6)1,498 (31.8)1,420 (30.7)1,548 (32.5)1,592 (40.4)3,948 (30.9)1,844 (24.9)
Statins, n (%)907 (16.5)1,165 (24.9)1,072 (22.9)1,036 (22.4)1,200 (25.3)1,207 (30.7)2,826 (22.2)1,332 (18.1)
Aspirin, n (%)589 (10.8)742 (16.0)654 (14.2)572 (12.5)671 (14.4)804 (20.6)1,660 (13.1)752 (10.4)
HF, n (%)53 (0.9)52 (1.1)22 (0.5)12 (0.3)16 (0.3)53 (1.3)80 (0.6)22 (0.3)
AF, n (%)27 (0.5)40 (0.8)16 (0.3)16 (0.3)29 (0.6)39 (1.0)59 (0.4)28 (0.4)
IHD, n (%)47 (0.8)55 (1.1)27 (0.6)14 (0.3)19 (0.4)48 (1.2)89 (0.7)23 (0.3)
  • Data are crude baseline values as means ± 1 SD unless otherwise indicated. BP, blood pressure; Chol-to-HDL ratio, total cholesterol–to–HDL ratio.