Table 1

Univariate and multivariate analysis of HbA1c

Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis (linear regression model)
PercentageHbA1c (%)*P valueRegression coefficient β (95% CI)P value
Sex
 Female488.7 ± 1.50.782−0.272 (−0.667 to 0.123) (male vs. female)0.177
 Male528.7 ± 1.7
Age (years)
 1st quartile (2.9–10.9)258.0 ± 0.9<0.0010.035 (−0.019 to 0.089)0.198
 2nd quartile (>10.9–14.5)258.6 ± 1.3
 3rd quartile (>14.5–17.0)259.1 ± 1.8
 4th quartile (>17.0–22.0)259.1 ± 1.9
BMI-SDS
 1st quartile (−2.36 to 0.05)258.8 ± 1.80.262−0.004 (−0.213 to 0.205)0.970
 2nd quartile (>0.05–0.55)258.4 ± 1.5
 3rd quartile (>0.55–1.16)258.8 ± 1.7
 4th quartile (>1.16–2.85)258.7 ± 1.5
Diabetes duration (years)
 1st quartile (1.0–3.4)258.0 ± 1.30.0010.066 (0.002–0.131)0.045
 2nd quartile (>3.4–5.6)258.8 ± 1.8
 3rd quartile (>5.6–8.4)258.9 ± 1.5
 4th quartile (>8.4–16.7)259.1 ± 1.7
Insulin pump
 No798.8 ± 1.70.204−0.253 (−0.696 to 0.191) (yes vs. no)0.262
 Yes218.4 ± 1.1
Socioeconomic status
 Low308.9 ± 1.70.0040.801 (0.291–1.312) (low vs. high)0.002
 Moderate378.5 ± 1.4
 High338.0 ± 1.00.565 (0.117–1.013) (moderate vs. high)0.014
Media consumption (h/day)
 1st quartile (0–1.6)258.5 ± 1.50.0010.158 (0.034–0.283)0.013
 2nd quartile (>1.6–2.6)248.5 ± 1.6
 3rd quartile (>2.6–3.9)268.4 ± 1.3
 4th quartile (>3.9–9.0)259.3 ± 1.8
Physical activity (h/week)
 1st quartile (0–2)338.8 ± 1.60.4650.014 (−0.030 to 0.057)0.619
 2nd quartile (>2–4)198.6 ± 1.8
 3rd quartile (>4–7)268.6 ± 1.5
 4th quartile (>7–30)228.9 ± 1.7
Seasonality
 Warm season128.6 ± 1.60.7310.241 (−0.830 to 0.348)0.420
 Cold season888.7 ± 1.6
  • *Calculation of mean HbA1c ± SD for different subgroups related to covariates. Normal range HbA1c: 4.3–5.6%.

  • †Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • P < 0.05.