Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population and risk for new-onset hyperglycemia during follow-up, by classes of mean daily W-Intake

Daily W-Intake (L)
<0.50.5 to 1.0>1.0P for difference
General
 n6771,7541,184
 Men (%)48.647.945.40.31
 Age (years)46.4 (9.9)47.3 (10.0)46.3 (9.9)0.001
 BMI( kg/m2)24.1 (3.5)24.4 (3.5)24.7 (3.8)0.001
 Waist circumference (cm)81.6 (10.7)82.3 (11.0)82.7 (11.6)0.026
 Physical activity (%)0.0001
  Low28.725.719.4
  Medium56.154.652.6
  High15.219.828.0
 Tobacco smoking (%)0.0001
  Never smokers47.755.957.8
  Ex-smokers26.326.624.1
  Current smokers26.017.518.2
Alcohol consumption (g/day) (%)0.0001
  Nonconsumers22.023.030.7
  1–1024.727.231.2
  10–208.18.46.7
  >2045.241.331.4
 Creatininemia (μmol/L)81.2 (13.0)81.6 (13.0)81.0 (12.9)0.39
 C-reactive protein*1.00 (0.85–2.64)0.87 (0.85–2.00)0.85 (0.85–2.00)0.49
Blood pressure
 Systolic (mmHg)129 (15)131 (15)130 (15)0.32
 Diastolic (mmHg)79 (10)80 (9)79 (9)0.21
 Hypertension (%)32.534.332.40.50
 Treated THZD/Furo (%)3.72.23.20.07
Metabolic data
 Family history diabetes (%)20.619.019.30.67
 Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)5.21 (0.45)5.22 (0.44)5.17 (0.44)0.72
 Fasting insulinemia (pmol/L)42.7 (23.3)45.0 (24.7)44.1 (27.6)0.08
 HOMA-IR1.40 (0.80)1.48 (0.87)1.43 (0.96)0.10
 HOMA-B63 (46–89)66 (46–92)65 (47–91)0.15
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.76 (0.97)5.72 (0.97)5.66 (0.98)0.007
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.14 (0.85)1.09 (0.66)1.09 (0.65)0.15
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)**1.64 (0.41)1.66 (0.43)1.64 (0.44)0.44
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)**3.39 (0.83)3.35 (0.89)3.32 (0.90)0.032
Other drinks
Mean volume of sweet drinks (L) (%)0.0001
  <0.592.095.597.0
  0.5 to 1.06.94.31.9
  >1.01.00.21.1
Mean volume of wine/day (L) (%)0.0001
  <0.589.193.996.4
  0.5 to 1.09.96.13.6
  >1.01.00.00.1
Mean volume of beer or cider (L) (%)0.056
  <0.596.998.198.7
  0.5 to 1.02.71.81.1
Urine
 Urine density (× 1,000)1,019.6 (8.0)1,019.3 (9.1)1,017.9 (9.6)0.0001
ORs for new-onset hyperglycemia
 Model 11.00 (reference)0.64 (0.49–0.83)0.73 (0.55–0.97)0.003
 Model 21.00 (reference)0.68 (0.52–0.89)0.79 (0.59–1.05)0.016
  • Data are means (SD) or medians (25th–75th percentiles) for continuous variables and percentages of patients for categorical variables. THZD, thiazidic diuretics; Furo, furosemide; HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment index of insulin resistance; HOMA-B, homeostatic model assessment index of insulin secretion. Hypertension was defined as systolic or diastolic blood pressure >140 or 90, respectively, or treated with antihypertensive drugs. ORs (95% CIs) for the association between daily W-Intake at baseline and the risk of incident hyperglycemia (fasting plasma glucose ≥6.1 mmol/L or treatment for diabetes) are presented according to two statistical models; variables for adjustment were either known risk factors for type 2 diabetes or factors associated (P < 0.10) with hyperglycemia and W-Intake in our population. Model 1: Adjusted for age, sex, BMI, baseline FG, physical activity, smoking status, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol. Model 2: Further adjusted on self-reported intake of other fluids (i.e., volumes of beer or cider, sweet drinks, and wine consumed per day). Significant P values (<0.05) are in boldface.

  • *The C-reactive protein was available for only 181, 466, and 333 subjects in the three classes of W-Intake, respectively.

  • **HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were not available for 28 and 26 subjects, respectively.