Table 2

Unadjusted and adjusted HRs of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on end points in 1,014 patients with diabetes, according to n-3 fatty acid supplementation group

VariablesPlacebo (N = 249)ALA (N = 258)EPA-DHA (N = 262)EPA-DHA plus ALA (N = 245)
Ventricular arrhythmia–related events (N = 29)
 No./total no. (%)13/249 (5.2%)6/258 (2.3%)8/262 (3.1%)2/245 (0.8%)
 Crude*1.0 (ref.)0.45 (0.17–1.18); 0.100.57 (0.24–1.38); 0.210.15 (0.04–0.68); 0.01
 Adjusted*1.0 (ref.)0.47 (0.18–1.24); 0.130.58 (0.24–1.39); 0.220.16 (0.04–0.69); 0.01
Death from MI (N = 27)
 No./total no. (%)7/249 (2.8%)11/258 (4.3%)5/262 (1.9%)4/245 (1.6%)
 Crude*1.0 (ref.)1.52 (0.59–3.93); 0.390.67 (0.21–2.10); 0.490.57 (0.17–1.96); 0.38
 Adjusted*1.0 (ref.)1.45 (0.56–3.75); 0.450.66 (0.21–2.07); 0.470.53 (0.15–1.81); 0.31
Ventricular arrhythmia–related events or death from MI (N = 56)
 No./total no. (%)20/249 (8.0%)17/258 (6.6%)13/262 (5.0%)6/245 (2.4%)
 Crude*1.0 (ref.)0.82 (0.43–1.57); 0.560.60 (0.30–1.21); 0.150.30 (0.12–0.74); 0.009
 Adjusted*1.0 (ref.)0.81 (0.43–1.56); 0.540.60 (0.30–1.20); 0.150.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.007
All-cause mortality (N = 110)
 No./total no. (%)31/249 (12.4%)28/258 (10.9%)26/262 (9.9%)25/245 (10.2%)
 Crude*1.0 (ref.)0.88 (0.53–1.47); 0.620.78 (0.47–1.32); 0.360.81 (0.48–1.37); 0.43
 Adjusted*1.0 (ref.)0.87 (0.52–1.46); 0.600.80 (0.47–1.34); 0.390.78 (0.46–1.33); 0.37
  • *Data are HRs with 95% CIs and P values, with the use of Cox proportional hazards models.

  • †Adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status.