Table 1

Established, new, and emerging metabolomic biomarkers for type 2 diabetes

PredictorAbbreviationReference no.
Metabolic markers
 Insulin7 and 8
 Glucose7 and 8
 γ-Glutamyl transferaseGGT4 and 8
 Alanine aminotransferaseALT5 and 6
 FerritinFTH17 and 8
 Pancreatic polypeptidePP9
 Fetuin A11
 Sex hormone–binding globulinSHBG7 and 12
 Free testosterone12
 Insulin-like growth factor IIGF-I13
 Insulin receptor8
 Creatine kinase-MBCKMB8
 MR-Pro atrial natriuretic peptideMR_PRO_ANP8
 NT-Pro B-type natriuretic peptideNT_PRO_BNP8
 B-type natriuretic peptideBNP8
Biomarkers of glycemia
 Glycated hemoglobinHbA1c
 Glycated albumin16
 Glycated insulin17
 Glycosylated amylin18
 Glycated LDL19
Markers of oxidative stress and nutrient status
 Advanced glycated end products receptorRAGE24
 Ascorbic acidVitamin C21
 25-Hydroxyvitamin DVitamin D22
 Branched-chain and aromatic amino acidsLeu, Ile, Val, Tyr, Phe23
Lipid-related markers
 LeptinLEP6 and 25
 AdiponectinADIPOQ6, 8, and 25
 Apolipoprotein BApoB8
 Apolipoprotein AApoA8
Endothelial and inflammatory markers
 C-reactive proteinCRP6–8 and 26
 Interleukin-18IL-188 and 27
 Interleukin-1 receptor antagonistIL-1ra28
 Interleukin-2 receptor antagonistIL-2ra7
 Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1PAI-16 and 29
 Cell adhesion moleculeCAM30
 Tissue plasminogen activator antigent-PA antigen, PLAT31
 Von Willebrand factorvWF31