Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the 1,014 patients with an MI and diabetes,* according to n-3 fatty acid supplementation group

VariablesPlacebo (N = 249)ALA (N = 258)EPA-DHA (N = 262)EPA-DHA plus ALA (N = 245)P value
Age (years)69.1 ± 5.869.4 ± 5.769.3 ± 5.770.0 ± 5.50.31
Male sex (%)197 (79.1)176 (68.2)197 (75.2)177 (72.2)0.04
Diabetes*
 Diagnosis from a physician (%)202 (81.5)215 (84.0)212 (80.9)198 (81.8)0.81
 Use of antidiabetic drugs (%)184 (73.9)192 (74.4)184 (70.2)180 (73.5)0.70
 Elevated plasma glucose level (%)115 (46.2)100 (38.8)118 (45.0)108 (44.1)0.34
Time since MI (years)4.7 ± 3.24.5 ± 3.34.4 ± 3.04.5 ± 3.10.77
Self-reported history of stroke (%)13 (5.2)23 (8.9)18 (6.9)24 (9.8)0.22
Use of cardiovascular medication (%)
 Antithrombotic drugs241 (96.8)250 (96.9)256 (97.7)234 (95.5)0.58
 Blood pressure–lowering drugs232 (93.2)238 (92.2)247 (94.3)227 (92.7)0.82
 Lipid-lowering drugs213 (85.5)217 (84.1)223 (85.1)205 (83.7)0.93
 Antiarrhythmic drugs11 (4.4)11 (4.3)9 (3.4)9 (3.7)0.93
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)142.1 ± 20.3143.4 ± 22.5143.5 ± 21.1142.6 ± 23.20.88
Serum lipids (mmol/L)
 Total cholesterol4.65 ± 0.954.65 ± 0.974.63 ± 0.924.65 ± 1.011.00
 LDL cholesterol2.49 ± 0.822.40 ± 0.822.47 ± 0.782.41 ± 0.840.63
 HDL cholesterol1.18 ± 0.311.22 ± 0.331.22 ± 0.361.22 ± 0.330.51
 Triglycerides2.25 ± 1.352.34 ± 1.272.13 ± 1.122.21 ± 1.200.31
BMI
 Mean29.2 ± 4.629.3 ± 4.328.9 ± 4.329.4 ± 4.80.58
 ≥30 (%)93 (37.5)97 (37.7)93 (35.8)96 (39.2)0.89
Current smoker (%)54 (21.7)44 (17.1)41 (15.6)30 (12.2)0.04
Consumption of ≥1 glass of alcohol/week (%)165 (66.3)165 (64.2)181 (69.1)155 (63.3)0.52
Physically active (%)**40 (16.2)36 (14.2)53 (20.4)47 (19.3)0.24
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. As data for a number of patients were missing from several variables (BMI, 4 patients; alcohol use, 1 patient; and physical activity, 9 patients), some percentages are based on a smaller number than the column total.

  • *Diabetes was considered to be present if a patient reported having received the diagnosis from a physician, was taking antidiabetic drugs, or had an elevated plasma glucose level (≥7.0 mmol/L [126 mg/dL] in the case of patients who had fasted more than 4 h or ≥11.1 mmol/L [200.0 mg/dL] in the case of nonfasting patients).

  • †To convert the values for cholesterol to milligrams per deciliter, divide by 0.02586. To convert the values for triglycerides to milligrams per deciliter, divide by 0.01129.

  • ‡The BMI is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters.

  • **Greater than or equal to three metabolic equivalent of task (indicating at least moderate intensity for at least 30 min/day) during 6 or 7 days/week.