Table 2

Characteristics of participants at randomization

VariableGLIPULIN
(n = 52)BBI
(n = 50)Total
(n = 102)ACCORD glycemia trial
(n = 10,251)
Age (years)62 (8)63 (7)62 (8)62 (7)
Female sex31443739
Median duration of diabetes (years)15 (9)16 (7)15 (8)10
Previous cardiovascular event39283335
Previous congestive heart failure8045
Race or ethnic group
 White non-Hispanic83808163
 Black non-Hispanic12141319
 Hispanic2647
 Other40211
Weight (kg)101.3 (14.2)99.7 (17.8)100.5 (16.0)93.4
BMI (kg/m2)34.2 (5.0)33.7 (5.1)33.9 (5.1)32.2 (5.5)
Waist circumference (cm)113.9 (16.6)112.8 (14.1)113.4 (15.4)106.8
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic131.7 (13.6)129.1 (15.2)130.4 (14.4)136.4
 Diastolic73.5 (11.3)73.1 (9.8)73.3 (10.5)74.9
Heart rate (bpm)70.5 (10.5)72.4 (10.4)71.4 (10.4)72.7
Blood
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)64 (4)63 (3)63 (4)67 (12)
 HbA1c (%)8.0 (0.4)7.9 (0.3)7.9 (0.4)8.3 (1.1)
 C-peptide (nmol/L)0.80 (0.07)0.73 (0.10)0.77 (0.07)NA
 Creatinine (μmol/L)79.56 (17.68)79.56 (17.68)79.56 (17.68)79.56
 Alanine aminotransferase (μkat/L)37.6 (22.8)32.4 (14.8)35.0 (19.3)NA
Urine
 Albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g)3.95 (7.83)4.52 (16.94)4.23 (13.05)NA
 <3.475848069
 3.4–3421141825
 >344237
Glucose-lowering medications (prescreening)
 Insulin10010010035
  Basal insulin only272426NA
  Prandial insulin only264NA
  Basal + one or more prandial injections625860NA
  Premixed insulin one or two injections465NA
 Metformin89908960
 Secretagogue21262451
 Thiazolidinedione62419
 GLP-1RA0840
 DPP-4 inhibitor2430
CV CGM31.9 (6.1)30.0 (6.1)31.0 (6.1)NA
  • Data are mean (SD) or %. DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; NA, not available.