Table 4

Criteria for testing for diabetes in asymptomatic adult individuals

1. Testing should be considered in all adults who are overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2*) and who have one or more additional risk factors:
  • physical inactivity

  • first-degree relative with diabetes

  • high-risk race/ethnicity (e.g., African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, Pacific Islander)

  • women who delivered a baby weighing >9 lb or who were diagnosed with GDM

  • hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or on therapy for hypertension)

  • HDL cholesterol level <35 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L) and/or a triglyceride level >250 mg/dL (2.82 mmol/L)

  • women with PCOS

  • A1C ≥5.7%, IGT, or IFG on previous testing

  • other clinical conditions associated with insulin resistance (e.g., severe obesity, acanthosis nigricans)

  • history of CVD

2. In the absence of the above criteria, testing for diabetes should begin at age 45 years
3. If results are normal, testing should be repeated at least at 3-year intervals, with consideration of more-frequent testing depending on initial results (e.g., those with prediabetes should be tested yearly) and risk status.
  • * At-risk BMI may be lower in some ethnic groups. PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome.