Table 3

Associations between changes of markers of low-grade inflammation and changes of glycemic control, insulin secretion, and glucose disappearance rate within the first 2 years after diabetes diagnosis in patients with type 1 diabetes

hsCRPIL-6IL-18sE-selectinsICAM-1
Variable/modelβ (95% CI)P valueβ (95% CI)P valueβ (95% CI)P valueβ (95% CI)P valueβ (95% CI)P value
Glycemic control
 HbA1c*
  Model 10.2900.4210.0030.7780.812
   %0.26 (−0.23; 0.76)−0.20 (−0.68; 0.29)1.14 (0.42; 1.86)0.18 (−1.10; 1.46)0.22 (−1.63; 2.06)
   mmol/mol2.8 (−2.5; 8.3)−2.2 (−7.4; 3.2)12.5 (4.6; 20.3)2.0 (−12.0; 16.0)2.4 (−17.8; 22.5)
  Model 20.2990.8820.0030.4250.675
   %0.31 (−0.29; 0.91)−0.04 (−0.63; 0.54)1.18 (0.43; 1.93)0.62 (−0.94; 2.18)0.43 (−1.64; 2.49)
   mmol/mol3.4 (−3.2; 9.9)−0.4 (−6.9; 5.9)12.9 (4.7; 21.1)6.8 (−10.3; 23.8)4.7 (−17.9; 27.2)
Indices of insulin secretion
 C-peptide secretion capacity
  Model 14.88 (−9.36; 21.35)0.5041.80 (−14.87; 21.73)0.838−2.43 (−20.03; 19.05)0.80146.10 (0.47; 112.46)0.047−11.84 (−49.73; 54.60)0.647
  Model 24.80 (−11.86; 24.62)0.571−3.66 (−22.38; 19.58)0.7211.50 (−18.71; 26.74)0.89035.43 (−14.07; 113.43)0.17813.82 (−45.95; 139.71)0.719
 ACPRG
  Model 1−7.26 (−35.93; 34.24)0.675−20.57 (−49.72; 25.50)0.309−20.72 (−51.76; 30.29)0.344−38.64 (−77.88; 70.15)0.333−71.08 (−92.27; 8.23)0.064
  Model 2−4.98 (−36.96; 43.22)0.793−27.64 (−59.09; 27.96)0.249−14.36 (−50.12; 47.04)0.554−41.49 (−82.14; 91.68)0.355−44.64 (−91.73; 270.70)0.522
 iAUCCP
  Model 111.14 (−39.08; 102.78)0.718−30.52 (−67.23; 47.30)0.327−23.71 (−65.98; 71.04)0.49648.36 (−70.65; 650.04)0.620−79.73 (−97.60; 71.48)0.136
  Model 230.91 (−32.53; 154.01)0.398−47.94 (−80.01; 35.59)0.169−3.84 (−64.24; 158.59)0.935178.21 (−60.97; 1,883.08)0.2886.67 (−95.73; 2,564.91)0.967
 iBCF
  Model 137.69 (−30.89; 174.35)0.341−4.69 (−56.16; 107.18)0.899−13.24 (−65.01; 115.09)0.74856.93 (−68.70; 686.69)0.567−72.08 (−96.73; 138.51)0.230
  Model 279.12 (−28.94; 351.53)0.193−23.22 (−77.52; 162.24)0.653−2.37 (−69.39; 211.39)0.965199.27 (−61.69; 2,237.79)0.274−0.88 (−95.43; 2,050.90)0.995
Measure of intravenous glucose tolerance
 Glucose disappearance rate*
  Model 10.07 (−0.05; 0.20)0.2450.09 (−0.05; 0.24)0.194−0.11 (−0.33; 0.10)0.294−0.23 (−0.56; 0.09)0.148−0.01 (−0.48; 0.46)0.972
  Model 20.01 (−0.15; 0.17)0.8830.14 (−0.01; 0.29)0.075−0.16 (−0.38; 0.05)0.126−0.19 (−0.54; 0.15)0.2590.07 (−0.40; 0.54)0.766
  • Data are regression coefficients (β), 95% CIs, and P values from linear regression analyses with hsCRP, IL-6, IL-18, sE-selectin, and sICAM-1 as the independent variables and HbA1c, C-peptide secretion capacity, ACPRG, iAUCCP, iBCF, and glucose disappearance rate as dependent variables. Model 1 was adjusted for the independent variable at baseline, concentration of the marker of low-grade inflammation at baseline, age at baseline, and sex, and model 2 was additionally adjusted for BMI at baseline, change of BMI, change of the type of glucose-lowering medication, smoking status at baseline, and change of smoking status. C-peptide secretion capacity, ACPRG, iAUCCP, iBCF, hsCRP, IL-6, IL-18, sE-selectin, and sICAM-1 entered the models as ln-transformed variables. Boldface indicates significant associations (P < 0.05). C-peptide secretion capacity as ratio of C-peptide 6 min/C-peptide 0 min from glucagon stimulation test. Regression coefficients should be interpreted as follows:

  • *A doubling of the ratio of hsCRP, IL-6, IL-18, sE-selectin, and sICAM-1 within the first 2 years after diabetes diagnosis associates with an absolute change of HbA1c and glucose disappearance rate within the first 2 years by β.

  • †A doubling of the ratio of 2-year follow-up/baseline values of hsCRP, IL-6, IL-18, sE-selectin, and sICAM-1 within the first 2 years after diabetes diagnosis associates with a percent change of C-peptide secretion capacity, ACPRG, iAUCCP, and iBCF within the first 2 years by β.