Table 2

Link between HbA1c, hypoglycemia, and GV and adverse effects

Adverse effectEmbedded ImageHbA1cEmbedded ImageHypoglycemiaEmbedded ImageGV
MortalityYesYesNo
ComplicationsYesYesPossible minor effect (on microvascular complications)
Emergency department visits/hospitalizationsYesYesUnknown
Increased costYesYesUnknown
Decreased quality of life or patient satisfactionNeutralYesYes (few studies)
Increased reactive oxygen speciesUnknownUnknownYes
Increased inflammatory proteinsUnknownUnknownYes