Table 1

Peak and AUC at different intervals of YesB-Day versus NoB-Day

BreakfastLunchDinner
YesBNoBΔ%YesBNoBΔ%YesBNoBΔ%
Glucose (mg/dL · min)Peak218.2 ± 2.1124.4 ± 1.3*−43.0192.32.1268.8 ± 3.3*39.8235.5 ± 2.4294 ± 3.1*24.9
AUC0–305,041.4 ± 42.43,658.6 ± 272.6*−27.44,499.7 ± 22.75,566 ± 26.4*23.74,818.4 ± 29.46,565.9 ± 43.9*36.3
AUC0–18033,033.4 ± 243.921,248.9 ± 65.9*−35.730,566.3 ± 185.141,804.7 ± 310.9*36.837,368.4 ± 247.347,310 ± 288.4*26.6
Insulin (µIU/mL · min)Peak40.5 ± 1.111.3 ± 0.5*−72.148.5 ± 1.236.5 ± 0.6*−24.738.6 ± 0.834.4 ± 0.7−10.8
AUC0–30457.1 ± 11.9290.7 ± 7.5***−36.4989.9 ± 17.7497.7 ± 10.7*−49.7749.9 ± 22.8456.3 ± 14.3*−39.2
AUC0–1805,593.6 ± 113.11,757.5 ± 50.6*−68.66,212.9 ± 115.75,156.3 ± 85.8*−17.05,593.4 ± 146.95,150.3 ± 98.8*−7.9
C-peptide (ng/mL · min)Peak6.4 ± 0.12.4 ± 0.1*−63.37.6 ± 0.16.6 ± 0.2**−13.67.2 ± 0.36.2 ± 0.1**−14.5
AUC0–3096.8 ± 2.766.5 ± 2.8**−31.2166.5 ± 3.395.7 ± 2.6*−42.5130.6 ± 2.5111.9 ± 2.7*−14.3
AUC0–180942.7 ± 16.9357.6 ± 8.9*−62.11,126.1 ± 21.6916 ± 16.4*−18.71,042.3 ± 19.6914.4 ± 17.7*−12.3
iGLP-1 (pmol/L · min)Peak16.2 ± 0.26.4 ± 0.2*−60.518.1 ± 0.214.2 ± 0.3*−21.516.3 ± 0.213.9 ± 0.3*−14.5
AUC0–30330 ± 4.9181.4 ± 4.8*−45.0410.8 ± 4.5289.4 ± 3.9*−29.5376.8 ± 4.4311.4 ± 4.9*−17.4
AUC0–1802,152.4 ± 21.31,014.6 ± 24.4*−52.92,456.6 ± 24.91,989.4 ± 20.5*−19.02,276.1 ± 19.61,900.8 ± 23.1*−16.5
FFA (mmol/L · min)Nadir231.4 ± 6.5630.1 ± 8.7*172.3280.6 ± 7.5381.7 ± 9.5*36350.5 ± 7.7421.0 ± 7.6*20.0
AUC0–3018,099.5 ± 194.820,854.1 ± 148.9**15.211,148.4 ± 200.317,189.7 ± 245.8*54.211,632.2 ± 215.315,820.2 ± 282.4*36.0
AUC0–1806,242 ± 1,218117,791 ± 1,368*1,787.155,860.6 ± 1,034.478,830.1 ± 1,482.7*41.167,777.2 ± 1,276.787,808 ± 1,251.1*29.6
Glucagon (pg/mL · min)Peak130 ± 1.2103.2 ± 1.4*−20.6125 ± 1.3137.1 ± 1.2*9.7132.7 ± 1.5144 ± 1.8*8.5
AUC0–303,648.8 ± 28.53,032.7 ± 34.6*−16.93,446.6 ± 29.73,834.6 ± 31.9*11.33,442.2 ± 28.14,028.5 ± 38.9*17.0
AUC0–18020,327.4 ± 150.618,160.2 ± 121.2*−10.719,429.8 ± 17122,300.9 ± 145*14.820,501.9 ± 143.322,850.1 ± 156.4*11.5
  • Statistics were between the NoB and the YesB of the same meal.

  • *P < 0.0001;

  • **P < 0.001;

  • ***P < 0.05.