Table 3

HRs for adverse events according to increasing levels of AGEs and sRAGE

sRAGE (log scale) (per 1 unit*)Laboratory AGE value (per 100 RFU/mg protein*)
ModelOutcomeHR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
1All-cause death1.20 (1.09–1.32)0.00021.05 (0.97–1.14)0.2193
Major cardiovascular events1.16 (1.05–1.29)0.00381.06 (0.98–1.15)0.1262
New or worsening nephropathy1.43 (1.23–1.67)<0.00011.25 (1.12–1.38)<0.0001
2All-cause death1.17 (1.06–1.29)0.00151.00 (0.91–1.09)0.9474
Major cardiovascular events1.14 (1.02–1.26)0.01581.02 (0.93–1.11)0.7392
New or worsening nephropathy1.39 (1.19–1.63)<0.00011.21 (1.08–1.35)0.0009
3All-cause death1.11 (1.00–1.22)0.04510.97 (0.89–1.06)0.5382
Major cardiovascular events1.08 (0.97–1.21)0.14711.02 (0.93–1.12)0.7121
New or worsening nephropathy1.20 (1.02–1.41)0.03161.21 (1.08–1.36)0.0013
4All-cause death1.17 (1.06–1.29)0.00130.97 (0.89–1.06)0.5522
Major cardiovascular events1.15 (1.03–1.27)0.01020.99 (0.91–1.09)0.8881
New or worsening nephropathy1.34 (1.15–1.57)0.00021.17 (1.04–1.32)0.0102
5All-cause death1.11 (1.01–1.21)0.03230.98 (0.90–1.07)0.6516
Major cardiovascular events1.09 (0.98–1.20)0.10771.00 (0.91–1.09)0.9688
New or worsening nephropathy1.32 (1.14–1.54)0.00031.20 (1.07–1.35)0.0015
6All-cause death1.11 (1.01–1.22)0.02570.96 (0.88–1.06)0.4385
Major cardiovascular events1.10 (0.99–1.22)0.06870.98 (0.89–1.08)0.7276
New or worsening nephropathy1.28 (1.10–1.49)0.00171.17 (1.04–1.32)0.0101
  • Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, and randomized treatment groups; model 2: as model 1, but adjusted additionally for duration of diabetes, current smoking, systolic blood pressure, BMI, plasma glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and history of macrovascular events; model 3: as model 2, but additionally adjusted for ACR and eGFR (by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation); model 4: as model 2, but adjusted additionally for sRAGE or AGE, as appropriate; model 5: as model 3, but adjusted additionally for hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP, hs-CRP, and use of β-blockers; model 6: as model 5, but additionally adjusted for sRAGE or AGE, as appropriate. *Approximately 1 SD (on the raw scale sRAGE was measured in pg/mL).