Table 3

Adjusted odds of DKA based on logistic regression models: what variables explain the differences in DKA rates between ORs and 99% CIs

Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5Model 6
Registry/audit
 T1DX vs. DPV1.44 (1.28–1.63)*1.49 (1.31–1.68)*1.47 (1.30–1.67)*1.05 (0.92–1.20)1.06 (0.93–1.21)1.06 (0.93–1.21)
 NPDA vs. DPV1.30 (1.16–1.46)*1.33 (1.18–1.49)*1.42 (1.26–1.61)*0.79 (0.69–0.89)*0.78 (0.68–0.90)*0.79 (0.68–0.91)*
Age
 6 to <13 vs. <6 years0.99 (0.77–1.28)0.94 (0.72–1.22)0.93 (0.71–1.22)0.91 (0.69–1.20)0.91 (0.69–1.20)
 13 to <18 vs. <6 years1.35 (1.04–1.74)*1.28 (0.99–1.66)0.92 (0.70–1.21)0.89 (0.67–1.17)0.89 (0.67–1.18)
Sex
 Female vs. male1.35 (1.22–1.49)*1.32 (1.19–1.46)*1.26 (1.13–1.40)*1.23 (1.11–1.38)*1.23 (1.10–1.37)*
Type 1 diabetes duration
 >3 vs. 1 to <3 years1.28 (1.13–1.44)*1.30 (1.14–1.47)*1.10 (0.96–1.26)1.08 (0.94–1.24)1.08 (0.94–1.24)
Ethnic minority status
 Yes vs. no1.49 (1.32–1.68)*1.27 (1.12–1.44)*1.26 (1.11–1.43)*1.27 (1.11–1.44)*
HbA1c
 7.5 to <9.0% vs. <7.5%2.48 (2.04–3.00)*2.54 (2.09–3.09)*2.54 (2.09–3.09)*
 ≥9.0% vs. <7.5%8.64 (7.14–10.45)*8.73 (7.18–10.62)*8.74 (7.18–10.63)*
BMI
 Underweight vs. normal weight1.33 (0.74–2.37)1.33 (0.74–2.37)
 Overweight vs. normal weight1.03 (0.90–1.17)1.02 (0.90–1.17)
 Obesity vs. normal weight0.84 (0.71–1.00)*0.84 (0.71–1.00)*
Method of insulin delivery
 Pump vs. injection1.02 (0.91–1.15)