Table 1

Baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory data classified by sRAGE levels (pg/mL)

CharacteristicLowest third (≤1,119) Middle third (>1,119 to <2,053) Highest third (≥2,053) Total
n = 1,255n = 1,253n = 1,255N = 3,763P for trend
Male sex, n (%)823 (65.6)758 (60.5)715 (57.0)2,296 (61.0)<0.0001
Current smoker, n (%)195 (15.5)189 (15.1)186 (14.8)570 (15.1)0.6163
History of a macrovascular event, n (%)418 (33.3)419 (33.4)474 (37.8)1,311 (34.8)0.0190
Age, mean (SD), years66.50 (6.37)67.00 (6.64)67.27 (6.80)66.92 (6.61)0.0037
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 30.07 (5.08)30.02 (5.39)29.96 (5.32)30.02 (5.26)0.5873
Diabetes duration, mean (SD), years 7.50 (6.26)8.25 (6.62)7.89 (6.39)7.88 (6.43)0.1331
History of heart failure, n (%)42 (3.3)50 (4.0)78 (6.2)170 (4.5)0.0006
Moderate or vigorous activity, n (%)643 (51.2)600 (47.9)576 (45.9)1,819 (48.3)0.0075
Aspirin or other antiplatelet agent, n (%)603 (48.0)599 (47.8)655 (52.2)1,857 (49.3)0.0381
Statin or other lipid-lowering agent, n (%)543 (43.3)575 (45.9)546 (43.5)1,664 (44.2)0.9040
β-Blocker, n (%)320 (25.5)364 (29.1)456 (36.3)1,140 (30.3)<0.0001
ACE inhibitor or ARB, n (%)738 (58.8)733 (58.5)761 (60.6)2,232 (59.3)0.3501
Systolic blood pressure, mean (SD), mmHg148.21 (21.85)147.10 (21.74)147.24 (21.22)147.52 (21.61)0.2612
Diastolic blood pressure, mean (SD), mmHg82.17 (11.00)81.74 (10.94)80.87 (10.72)81.59 (10.90)0.0028
Total cholesterol, mean (SD), mmol/L 5.13 (1.15)5.15 (1.24)5.12 (1.13)5.13 (1.17)0.8774
HDL cholesterol, mean (SD), mmol/L 1.24 (0.34)1.23 (0.33)1.20 (0.32)1.22 (0.33)0.0005
Triglycerides, mean (SD), mmol/L 1.90 (1.18)1.94 (1.20)2.04 (1.25)1.96 (1.21)0.0055
HbA1c, mean (SD), %7.38 (1.41)7.42 (1.40)7.43 (1.48)7.41 (1.43)0.3667
HbA1c, mean (SD), mmol/mol 57 (15.4)58 (15.3)58 (16.2)58 (15.6)
Urinary ACR, median (IQI), mg/mmol12.90 (6.36, 34.48)15.03 (6.43, 43.70)16.80 (7.07, 46.94)15.03 (6.81, 41.37)0.0026
Glucose, mean (SD), mmol/L 8.53 (2.73)8.51 (2.68)8.36 (2.74)8.46 (2.71)0.1151
eGFR, mean (SD), mL/min/1.73 m2 74.44 (15.60)71.01 (17.04)69.00 (17.62)71.48 (16.92)<0.0001
hs-CRP, median (IQI), mg/L 1.87 (0.89, 4.12)1.80 (0.87, 4.02)1.79 (0.86, 4.00)1.81 (0.87, 4.05)0.3563
hs-cTnT, median (IQI), pg/mL 5.00 (1.50, 10.00)5.00 (1.50, 11.00)6.00 (1.50, 13.00)5.00 (1.50, 11.00)<0.0001
NT-proBNP, median (IQI), pg/mL 66 (26, 151)87 (35, 211)124 (47, 335)90 (35, 223)<0.0001
AGEs, mean (SD), RFU/mg protein 118.71 (86.54)137.81 (92.73)155.51 (96.57)137.34 (93.23)<0.0001
  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; IQI, interquartile interval.