Table 1

Characteristics of participant mothers at pregnancy OGTT and of their offspring at birth and at 5–7 years of age at follow-up

Follow-up statusP value
Yes
(n = 1,320)No
(n = 284)
Maternal
 Age at pregnancy OGTT (years)30.0 (5.4)28.3 (5.7)<0.001
 Primiparous658 (49.8%)132 (46.6%)0.33
 BMI at pregnancy OGTT (kg/m2)28.1 (4.4)29.0 (5.5)0.02
 BMI category at pregnancy OGTT
  <28.5 kg/m2809 (61.3%)154 (54.4%)0.007
  28.5–32.9 kg/m2345 (26.2%)74 (26.2%)
  ≥33 kg/m2165 (12.5%)55 (19.4%)
 Education (years)15.0 (2.8)14.1 (2.6)<0.001
 Pregnancy OGTT glucose
  FPG (mmol/L)4.6 (0.3)4.6 (0.3)0.39
  1-h PG (mmol/L)7.4 (1.6)7.4 (1.6)0.42
  2-h PG (mmol/L)6.0 (1.1)6.1 (1.2)0.58
  AUC PG (mmol/L/h)12.8 (2.0)12.7 (2.1)0.68
 Smoked cigarettes during pregnancy280 (21.2%)105 (37.1%)<0.001
 Drank alcohol during pregnancy359 (27.2%)71 (25.1%)0.47
 Married or cohabiting during pregnancy1,127 (85.4%)223 (78.8%)0.006
Offspring
 Female sex639 (48.4%)134 (47.3%)0.75
 Birth weight z score−0.11 (0.96)−0.18 (0.98)0.28
 LGA99 (7.5%)19 (6.8%)0.67
 Neonatal sum of skinfolds12.3 (10.8, 14.1)12.2 (10.7, 14.1)0.66
 Cord C-peptide concentration (μg/L)0.99 (0.70, 1.40)0.95 (0.70, 1.20)0.24
 Age at follow-up (years)6.3 (0.5)
 Age range (years)5.2–7.7
 BMI at follow-up (kg/m2)16.4 (1.9)
 BMI z score at follow-up0.43 (1.01)
 BMI z score category
  ≥85th percentile318 (24.1%)
  ≥95th percentile143 (10.9%)
  ≥99th percentile62 (4.7%)
 Sum of skinfolds at follow-up (mm)23.5 (range 18.6–28.2)
  • Data represent the mean (SD) or the geometric mean (interquartile range), unless otherwise indicated.

  • †BMI available in 1,317 offspring.

  • ‡Sum of skinfolds available in 1,311 offspring.