Table 1

Patient characteristics

Type 2 diabetesType 1 diabetes
VariableBaselineAfter 2 yearsΔBaselineAfter 2 yearsΔ
Basic characteristics
 n (% male)94 (71)42 (55)
 Duration since diagnosis of diabetes (days)167 ± 110177 ± 109
 Age (years)54 ± 1035 ± 12
 BMI (kg/m2)31.5 ± 5.831.7 ± 5.50.2 ± 1.724.8 ± 4.026.1 ± 3.81.3 ± 1.5**
 Current smoking status
  Yes20 (21)24 (26)8 (19)10 (24)
  No74 (79)70 (74)34 (81)32 (76)
 COPD within the past 12 (baseline) or 24 (follow-up) months*
  Yes4 (4)5 (5)1 (2)1 (2)
  No89 (96)88 (95)41 (98)41 (98)
 Bronchial asthma within the past 12 (baseline) or 24 (follow-up) months*
  Yes1 (1)2 (2)4 (10)5 (12)
  No92 (99)91 (98)38 (90)37 (88)
 Change of the type of glucose-lowering medication
  Intensified11 (12)3 (7)
  Unchanged78 (83)37 (88)
  Reduced5 (5)2 (5)
 No glucose-lowering medication52 (55)45 (48)5 (12)5 (12)
 Only oral glucose-lowering medication35 (37)44 (47)5 (12)4 (10)
 Only insulin therapy5 (5)3 (3)31 (74)32 (76)
 Oral glucose-lowering medication and insulin therapy2 (2)2 (2)1 (2)1 (2)
Glycemic control
 HbA1c (%)6.43 ± 0.986.62 ± 1.140.20 ± 1.097.08 ± 1.587.03 ± 1.200.05 ± 1.68
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)47 ± 1149 ± 132.2 ± 1254 ± 1753 ± 130.5 ± 18.4
Measures of insulin secretion
 Ratio of C-peptide secretion (6 min/0 min) from glucagon stimulation test1.86
(1.62; 2.19)2.14
(1.85; 2.43)0.24(−0.13; 0.50)**1.76
(1.57; 2.03)1.68
(1.37; 2.14)−0.05
(−0.36; 0.32)
 ACPRG (ng/mL)3.50
(2.85; 4.60)3.30
(2.40; 4.50)0.00(−0.80; 0.40)1.25
(0.80; 2.20)0.65
(0.20; 1.20)−0.60(−1.00; −0.40)**
 iAUCCP (pmol/L)351.2
(275.8; 477.2)312.4
(202.4; 469.0)−38.8(−133.9; 60.9)82.4
(34.4; 148.6)44.4
(12.1; 116.8)−25.8(−65.2; −0.3)#
 iBCF86.9
(64.2; 118.2)91.8
(63.0; 126.8)0.5
(−25.6; 26.2)18.4
(18.4; 45.5)11.1
(3.2; 27.7)−7.9
(−18.8; 0.7)
Measure of intravenous glucose tolerance
 Glucose disappearance rate (%/min)§0.80 ± 0.340.74 ± 0.25−0.07 ± 0.360.62 ± 0.280.48 ± 0.31−0.14 ± 0.28#
Markers of low-grade inflammation
 hsCRP (mg/L)\\2.30
(1.50; 5.60)2.25
(1.40; 4.60)0.00
(−1.50; 0.70)1.05
(0.70; 1.70)1.40 
(1.10; 2.60)0.20 
(−0.30; 1.20)
 IL-6 (pg/mL)*1.98
(1.38; 2.55)1.88
(1.30; 2.51)−0.16
(−0.69; 0.56)0.98 
(0.75; 1.54)0.96 
(0.73; 1.30)−0.04 
(−0.51; 0.27)
 IL-18 (pg/mL)295.5
(230.3; 427.0)314.0
(234.7; 434.5)3.6
(−47.3; 62.8)280.8
(183.8; 373.2)242.5
(199.3; 320.1)−27.9
(−85.6; 34.3)
 sE-selectin (ng/mL)*37.6
(27.4; 53.9)39.6
(30.5; 54.9)2.6(−1.6; 7.6)**35.9
(28.5; 44.2)37.9
(29.6; 44.3.3)1.3
(−1.8; 4.5)
 sICAM-1 (ng/mL)*232.1
(197.3; 292.1)241.0
(211.5; 288.1)4.8
(−11.8; 27.3)205.7
(171.9; 242.7)223.8
(189.4; 271.3)13.9(−7.1; 36.4)#
  • Data are n (%), mean ± SD, or median (25th; 75th percentile). Statistical analysis used paired Student t test for normally distributed variables, Wilcoxon signed rank test for nonnormally distributed variables, McNemar test for paired samples for categorical variables with two characteristics, and Bowker test of symmetry for categorical variables with more than two characteristics to test for differences between baseline and after 2 years. Boldface indicates significant differences (P < 0.05). Δ, values after 2 years − baseline values.

  • *Data only available for 93 with type 2 diabetes and 30 with type 1 diabetes.

  • †Data only available for 76 with type 2 diabetes and 27 with type 1 diabetes.

  • ‡Data only available for 72 with type 2 diabetes and 35 with type 1 diabetes.

  • §Data only available for 75 with type 2 diabetes and 38 with type 1 diabetes.

  • \\Data only available for 74 patients with type 2 diabetes.

  • P < 0.05.

  • #P < 0.01.

  • **P < 0.001.