Table 2

Associations between changes of markers of low-grade inflammation and changes of glycemic control, insulin secretion, and glucose disappearance rate within the first 2 years after diabetes diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes

hsCRPIL-6IL-18sE-selectinsICAM-1
Variable/modelβ (95% CI)P valueβ (95% CI)P valueβ (95% CI)P valueβ (95% CI)P valueβ (95% CI)P value
Glycemic control
 HbA1c*
  Model 10.0010.0870.1120.001<0.001
   %0.46 (0.20; 0.71)0.27 (−0.04; 0.57)0.38 (−0.09; 0.86)0.88 (0.39; 1.37)1.78 (1.03; 2.52)
   mmol/mol5.0 (2.2; 7.8)3.0 (−0.4; 6.2)4.2 (−1.0; 9.4)9.6 (4.3; 15.0)19.5 (11.3; 24.6)
  Model 20.0020.2320.1860.001<0.001
   %0.46 (0.18; 0.74)0.20 (−0.13; 0.53)0.34 (−0.17; 0.85)0.90 (0.38; 1.42)1.69 (0.88; 2.51)
   mmol/mol5.0 (2.0; 8.1)2.2 (−1.4; 5.8)3.7 (−1.9; 9.3)9.8 (4.2; 15.5)18.5 (9.6; 27.4)
Indices of insulin secretion
 C-peptide secretion capacity
  Model 1−6.22 (−10.94; −1.24)0.016−6.48 (−12.73; 0.22)0.057−1.80 (−11.55; 9.03)0.730−13.29 (−23.97; −1.11)0.034−11.64 (−27.15; 7.18)0.205
  Model 2−2.90 (−7.75; 2.22)0.255−2.18 (−8.72; 4.83)0.527−1.16 (−10.53; 9.19)0.815−8.40 (−19.44; 4.14)0.177−5.98 (−22.03; 13.38)0.513
 ACPRG
  Model 1−1.38 (−8.31; 6.07)0.7031.37 (−6.46; 9.86)0.7372.29 (−9.39; 15.48)0.7101.48 (−13.27; 18.74)0.852−17.97 (−34.39; 2.56)0.081
  Model 2−0.83 (−8.62; 7.62)0.8380.60 (−8.18; 10.21)0.8972.11 (−10.41; 16.38)0.751−1.36 (−17.13; 17.41)0.876−21.61 (−38.51; −0.05)0.0496
 iAUCCP
  Model 1−3.85 (−16.38; 10.57)0.57616.43 (−1.90; 38.18)0.081−10.01 (−30.64; 16.76)0.422−13.70 (−38.05; 20.21)0.378−27.91 (−55.93; 17.94)0.189
  Model 2−3.17 (−17.26; 13.30)0.68121.16 (0.03; 46.76)0.0495−11.12 (−32.93; 17.76)0.406−18.92 (−44.00; 17.40)0.262−29.45 (−59.09; 21.67)0.205
  iBCF
  Model 1−8.70 (−20.29; 4.57)0.18410.41 (−6.38; 30.20)0.235−13.61 (−32.43; 10.47)0.239−30.88 (−50.63; −3.24)0.032−29.33 (−55.60; 12.49)0.141
  Model 2−7.62 (−20.16; 6.89)0.27914.55 (−4.60; 37.53)0.143−16.87 (−36.18; 8.29)0.167−34.87 (−54.81; −6.13)0.022−30.94 (−58.42; 14.71)0.150
Measure of intravenous glucose tolerance
 Glucose disappearance rate*
  Model 10.01 (−0.06; 0.08)0.8100.00 (−0.08; 0.08)0.9050.03 (−0.09; 0.15)0.6110.01 (−0.13; 0.14)0.923−0.08 (−0.29; 0.13)0.431
  Model 20.02 (−0.05; 0.10)0.5260.01 (−0.08; 0.10)0.8270.01 (−0.12; 0.13)0.9120.01 (−0.13; 0.16)0.860−0.07 (−0.30; 0.15)0.512
  • Data are regression coefficients (β), 95% CIs, and P values from linear regression analyses with hsCRP, IL-6, IL-18, sE-selectin, and sICAM-1 as the independent variables and HbA1c, C-peptide secretion capacity, ACPRG, iAUCCP, iBCF, and glucose disappearance rate as the dependent variables. Model 1 was adjusted for the independent variable at baseline, concentration of the marker of low-grade inflammation at baseline, age at baseline, and sex, and model 2 was additionally adjusted for BMI at baseline, change of BMI, change of the type of glucose-lowering medication, smoking status at baseline, and change of smoking status. C-peptide secretion capacity, ACPRG, iAUCCP, iBCF, hsCRP, IL-6, IL-18, sE-selectin, and sICAM-1 were entered into the models as ln-transformed variables. Boldface indicates significant associations (P < 0.05). C-peptide secretion capacity as ratio of C-peptide 6 min/C-peptide 0 min from glucagon stimulation test. Regression coefficients should be interpreted as follows:

  • *A doubling of the ratio of hsCRP, IL-6, IL-18, sE-selectin, and sICAM-1 within the first 2 years after diabetes diagnosis associates with an absolute change of HbA1c and glucose disappearance rate within the first 2 years by β.

  • †A doubling of the ratio of 2-year follow-up/baseline values of hsCRP, IL-6, IL-18, sE-selectin, and sICAM-1 associates with a percent change of C-peptide secretion capacity, ACPRG, iAUCCP, and iBCF within the first 2 years by β.