Table 1

Comparison of characteristics of participants without T1D (“no T1D”) and with T1D (“T1D”; EDC) and by degree of cognitive impairment* among participants with T1D

No T1D 
(n = 138)T1D 
(n = 97)P valueDegree of cognitive impairment* in participants with T1D
0 (n = 38, 39%)1 (n = 32, 33%)2 (n = 27, 28%)P value
Demographic factors
 Age (years)48.7 ± 7.249.1 ± 6.60.7248.2 ± 6.848.5 ± 6.750.8 ± 6.30.26
 Female sex76 (55)49 (51)0.5119 (50)16 (50)14 (52)0.93
 Education (years)16 ± 315 ± 30.00316 ± 315 ± 214 ± 30.004
Biological factors
 Serum glucose (mg/dL)91.3 ± 16.3174.5 ± 86.3<0.0001169.7 ± 93.8174.5 ± 89.5181.0 ± 74.50.97
 SBP (mmHg)119.4 ± 9.9119.6 ± 15.60.91117.1 ± 15.1122.5 ± 15.9119.8 ± 15.90.47
 DBP (mmHg)80 (74–84)66 (60–70)<0.000165.1 ± 8.468.5 ± 10.263.6 ± 10.70.15
 Ever had high blood pressure‡11 (8)37 (38)<0.000113 (34)12 (38)12 (44)0.38
 ApoE4 status (24, 34, or 44)27 (21)29 (30)0.1210 (26)12 (38)7 (26)0.96
Behavioral factors
 BMI (kg/m2)28.5 ± 5.627.4 ± 4.70.1125.8 ± 4.328.5 ± 4.728.3 ± 4.90.05
 Physical activity, past week (kcal)§1,628 (616–3,008)1,092 (420–1,981)0.031,412 (784–2,618)980 (420–1,676)448 (140–1,966)0.29
Diabetes factors
 T1D duration (years)41.0 ± 6.240.3 ± 6.441.0 ± 6.442.0 ± 5.60.61
 Age at T1D diagnosis (years)8.0 ± 4.27.9 ± 3.77.5 ± 4.38.9 ± 4.60.50
 Coronary artery disease§15 (15)5 (13)3 (9)7 (26)0.18
 Cardiac autonomic neuropathy§41 (47)13 (37)15 (54)13 (52)0.37
 Distal symmetric polyneuropathy§46 (51)13 (36)15 (56)18 (67)0.03
 Proliferative retinopathy§46 (47)13 (34)16 (50)17 (63)0.03
 Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73 m283.1 ± 23.687.2 ± 23.182.2 ± 25.778.6 ± 22.00.15
 25-year average A1c months (AU)1,116 ± 431962 ± 4331,258 ± 4031,164 ± 4050.06
 14-year A1c >7.5% (>58 mmol/mol)63 (65)18 (47)23 (72)22 (81)0.01
 A1c >7.5% (>58 mmol/mol)58 (61)16 (44)22 (69)20 (74)0.01
 Average ABI >1.3‖16 (19)3 (8)6 (24)7 (28)0.05
  • All measures were collected at the time of neurocognitive assessment (2010–2013) unless otherwise noted. Data are n (%), mean ± SD, or median (interquartile range). *Degree of cognitive impairment: “0” = no cognitive impairment, no test scores ≥1.5 SD worse than published norms; “1” = mild, only one test score ≥1.5 SD worse than the published norm; “2” = clinically relevant, two or more test scores ≥1.5 SD worse than published norms.

  • †Statistically significant using an FDR of 0.20. ‡For participants with T1D, systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg or self-report of ever using antihypertensive medication at any EDC physical exam from baseline (1986–1988) through the time of neurocognitive assessment (2010–2013); for participants without T1D, a history of high blood pressure or use of antihypertensive medication based on self-report at the time of neurocognitive assessment. §For participants with T1D, the measure was taken in 2004–2006. ‖Measure was taken in 1990–1992.