Table 2

Raw cognitive test scores for participants with T1D (EDC) and participants without T1D

DomainTestRaw scoreEffect size (d)†
T1D (mean ± SD)No T1D (mean ± SD)Difference (no T1D – T1D)
Mean%P value*
IQNAART
 Number correct37.1 ± 9.443.3 ± 10.36.2−15.00.0005‡0.62
 Estimated verbal IQ (scaled)§108 ± 8113 ± 95.0−4.50.0012‡0.59
Psychomotor speedDSST54.5 ± 13.563.4 ± 11.88.9−15.0<0.0001‡0.72
GP‖88.8 ± 33.269.0 ± 17.619.825.1<0.0001‡1.02
Executive functionStroop Color-Word41.4 ± 9.544.2 ± 8.83.2−7.50.06‡0.58
TMT
 Part B‖65.4 ± 38.553.4 ± 22.312.016.50.02‡0.47
 Ratio B to A‖2.5 ± 1.42.0 ± 0.70.521.20.002‡0.54
VF
 FAS44.4 ± 13.848.2 ± 11.93.7−7.40.10‡0.30
LN sequence11.0 ± 2.911.9 ± 2.81.0−8.20.05‡0.34
MemoryRey Auditory Verbal Learning
 Sum of trials 1–554.1 ± 8.956.0 ± 9.02.0−3.70.440.22
 Interference6.4 ± 2.66.9 ± 1.90.5−7.50.340.24
 Delayed recall11.0 ± 3.011.4 ± 3.00.4−4.00.650.15
ROCF-delayed18.6 ± 6.719.9 ± 6.61.3−6.60.410.20
4WSTM
 5-s list15.2 ± 3.116.3 ± 3.21.1−7.00.10‡0.35
 15-s list12.3 ± 4.113.4 ± 3.81.2−9.20.170.31
 30-s list10.5 ± 4.511.1 ± 4.70.6−5.80.760.14
VisuospatialROCF-copy30.7 ± 5.433.9 ± 3.43.2−9.9<0.0001‡0.88
Semantic fluencyVF Animals21.7 ± 5.323.3 ± 5.51.5−6.50.140.28
  • *P value for mean difference in test score, adjusted for years of education. †Effect size (Cohen d) calculated as t(n1 + n2)/√df(n1 × n2) to account for unequal sample sizes and unequal variances (source: http://www.uccs.edu/lbecker/effect-size.html, accessed 11 December 2014). ‡Statistically significant using a FDR of 0.20. §Estimated verbal IQ calculated as 128.7 − 0.89 (NAART incorrect). ǁTasks in which a higher score indicates worse performance; in all other tasks, higher scores indicate better performance.