Table 3

Ordinal logistic (proportional odds) regression models showing the independent effects of T1D on the odds of cognitive impairment level

Model
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OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
T1D5.13 (2.97–8.85)<0.0001*4.56 (2.62–7.93)<0.0001*4.82 (2.42–9.60)<0.0001*4.31 (2.39–7.76)<0.0001*3.85 (2.18–6.81)<0.0001*
Years of education0.87 (0.78–0.97)0.001*0.87 (0.78–0.96)0.001*0.87 (0.78–0.97)0.01*0.88 (0.79–0.98)0.03
Diastolic blood pressure1.00 (0.97–1.03)0.94
History of high blood pressure or using antihypertensive medication1.18 (0.61–2.31)0.63
Weekly physical activity estimate (kcal/100)0.99 (0.97–1.01)0.25
  • ORs here should be interpreted proportionately as the odds of any cognitive impairment (one or more vs. no tests impaired at ≥1.5 SD compared with published norms); also two or more vs. no or one test impaired. Different variables were included in each model: model 1, T1D; model 2, T1D + years of education; model 3, T1D + years of education + diastolic blood pressure; model 4, T1D + years of education + history of high blood pressure; model 5, T1D + years of education + estimated weekly physical activity. *Statistically significant using Bonferroni correction (model 1: P < 0.05; model 2: P < 0.03; models 3–5, P < 0.02).