Table 1

Demographic and baseline characteristics by analysis group

Group 1: no PO <48 moGroup 2: PO <48 moP
n172305
Treatment, n (%)
 M53 (30.8)116 (38.0)0.2453
 M+R58 (33.7)86 (28.2)
 M+L61 (35.5)103 (33.8)
Sex, n (%)
 Female111 (64.5)193 (63.3)0.7845
 Male61 (35.5)112 (36.7)
Age (years) 13.8 (1.9)14.1 (2.1)0.1825
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 NHB47 (27.3)117 (38.3)0.0323
 H70 (40.7)119 (39.0)
 NHW43 (25.0)48 (15.7)
 Other12 (7.0)21 (6.9)
Months since diagnosis8.1 (6.2)8.7 (6.2)0.3752
Depressive symptoms, n (%)
 No154 (91.1)251 (83.4)0.0217
 Yes15 (8.9)50 (16.6)
Tanner stage, n (%)
 ≥4155 (90.1)271 (88.9)0.6682
 ≤317 (9.9)34 (11.1)
Household income ($), n (%)
 Low (<25,000)62 (39.7)120 (45.0)0.0512
 Mid (25,000–49,999)46 (29.5)93 (34.8)
 High (≥50,000)48 (30.8)54 (20.2)
Household education, n (%)
 Less than high school46 (27.1)80 (26.5)0.4529
 High school, GED, business or technical school37 (21.8)85 (28.1)
 College, no degree57 (33.5)93 (30.8)
 College degree30 (17.6)44 (14.6)
First-degree family history of diabetes, n (%)
 No86 (50.6)100 (33.3)0.0003
 Yes84 (49.4)200 (66.7)
BMI (kg/m2)34.0 (7.6)35.1 (7.5)0.1189
Waist circumference (cm)107.1 (16.2)109.2 (17.0)0.1940
HbA1c at screening (%)6.79 (1.64)8.05 (2.07)<0.0001
HbA1c at screening (mmol/mol)51 (17.9)64 (22.6)<0.0001
HbA1c at randomization (%)5.68 (0.55)6.39 (0.80)<0.0001
HbA1c at randomization (mmol/mol)39 (6.0)46 (8.7)<0.0001
C-peptide (ng/mL)3.71 (1.55)3.91 (1.64)0.1921
DXA fat mass (kg)32.9 (10.0)33.0 (9.8)0.9453
DXA lean mass (kg)55.6 (12.4)54.0 (11.0)0.2299
Insulin inverse (mL/µU)0.045 (0.027)0.047 (0.037)0.7956
Insulinogenic index (µU/mL per mg/dL)2.04 (2.18)1.12 (2.08)<0.0001
  • Data are mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated. GED, General Equivalency Diploma; M, metformin alone; M+L, metformin plus lifestyle program; M+R, metformin plus rosiglitazone; mo, months; PO, primary outcome, i.e., failure to maintain glycemic control on randomized treatment assignment.

  • †Test performed on log transform to normalize distribution.