Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

CohortCountryBaseline study (years)Mean FU (years)Age range (years)N (% w)N diabetes (% w)N dementia (% w)N VaD (% w)N non-VaD (% w)Ascertainment of diabetesAscertainment of dementiaMaximum adjustment available
ACT Study (18)U.S.1994–1996765+2,067 (59)232 (52)524 (62)67 (61)457 (62)MeasuredCognitive Abilities Screening Instrument, DSM, NINCDS/ADRDAAge, sbp, smoking, BMI
ARIC (15)U.S.1990–19921446–7011,151 (57)1,445 (55)203 (57)NANAMeasured or SRICD-9 codesAge, race, sbp, smoking, BMI, tc
CCMS (20)U.S.1995565+3,260 (58)343 (53)141 (71)37 (65)104 (73)SRDSM, NINCDS/ADRDA, NINDS-AIRENAge, hypertension, BMI, high cholesterol
English and Scottish Health Surveys (16)U.K.1998–2008816–102154,844 (52)12,267 (48)1,242 (54)NANASRICD-9, ICD-10 codesAge, sbp, smoking, BMI, tc
Framingham Study (14)U.S.1976–197813NR2,609 (56)363 (43)234 (61)51 (61)183 (61)MeasuredDSM, NINCDS/ADRDA, NINDS-AIRENAge, sbp, smoking, BMI, tc
Hisayama Study (23)Japan1985–19881560+1,017 (57)150 (55)232 (66)65 (51)167 (72)MeasuredDSM, NINCDS/ADRDA, NINDS-AIRENAge, sbp, smoking, BMI, tc
KAME Project (17)U.S.1992–1994665+1,709 (55)290 (44)140 (59)45 (58)112 (63)SRDSM, NINCDS/ADRDA, NINDS-AIRENAge, sbp, smoking, BMI
Kungsholmen Project (25)Sweden1987–1989975+1,301 (75)104 (75)350 (81)49 (71)301 (83)SRDSM, NINCDS/ADRDA, NINDS-AIRENAge, sbp, smoking, BMI
MHAS (22)Mexico2001–2003360+5,398 (54)749 (61)306 (60)54 (63)230 (61)SRCCCE, IQCODEAge, hypertension, smoking, obesity
NHI, Taiwan (12)Taiwan2000–20089NR1,229,747 (52)614,876 (52)95,087 (57)8,300 (52)86,757 (57)MeasuredICD-9 codesAge, insurance premium, region, urbanization cbvd, cvd, hypertension, hyperlipidemia
NHIC, Korea (6)Korea1992–19951440–95848,505 (42)51,611 (35)2,914 (55)516 (47)1,669 (57)MeasuredDSM and medical examinationAge, alcohol
Norwegian Counties Study (24)Norway1974–19783535–5046,231 (51)613 (34)460 (53)NANAMeasured or SRICD-9 codesAge, sbp, smoking, BMI, tc
OCTO-Twin Study (19,21)Sweden1991–1999980+702 (67)122 (67)225 (70)57 (58)163 (73)MeasuredDSM, NINCDS/ADRDA, NINDS-AIRENAge, sbp, smoking, BMI, tc
SALSA Study (21)U.S.1998–19991060+1,789 (58)797 (56)116 (66)12 (50)90 (71)Measured or SRDSM, NINCDS/ADRDA, NINDS-AIRENAge, sbp, smoking, BMI, tc
  • ACT, Adult Changes in Thought; ARIC, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study; cbvd, cerebrovascular disease; CCCE, Cross-Cultural Cognitive Examination; CCMS, Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging; cvd, cardiovascular disease; FU, follow-up; IQCODE, Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly; MHAS, Mexican Health and Aging Study; NA, not available; NHI, National Health Insurance; NHIC, National Health Insurance Corporation; NINCDS/ADRDA, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Alzheimer's criteria; NINDS-AIREN, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherché et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences criteria; NR, not reported; OCTO-Twin, Origins of Variance in the Old-Old: Octogenarian Twins study; SALSA, Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging; sbp, systolic blood pressure; SR, self-report diabetes; tc, total cholesterol; VaD, vascular dementia; % w, percent women.