Table 3

Cortisol, PP, norepinephrine, and epinephrine levels and counterregulation during the hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp test in subjects with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes

Cortisol (pmol/L or nmol/L · min)PP (pg/mL or pg/mL · min)Norepinephrine (pmol/L or pmol/L · min)Epinephrine (pmol/L or pmol/L · min)
LixisenatidePlaceboLixisenatidePlaceboLixisenatidePlaceboLixisenatidePlacebo
Level 0 min411 ± 29463 ± 32171 ± 55157 ± 552.0 ± 0.22.1 ± 0.20.09 ± 0.020.11 ± 0.03
Level 60 min420 ± 28404 ± 35157 ± 63145 ± 532.5 ± 0.22.7 ± 0.20.19 ± 0.060.23 ± 0.07
Level 120 min629 ± 78691 ± 89321 ± 77381 ± 962.4 ± 0.23.0 ± 0.31.19 ± 0.342.06 ± 0.54a
∆At 3.5 mmol/L (60–120 min)219 ± 78308 ± 85163 ± 59235 ± 790.0 ± 0.10.3 ± 0.20.99 ± 0.311.82 ± 0.53a
Mean level 60–120 min558 ± 52574 ± 60247 ± 66312 ± 772.4 ± 0.582.8 ± 0.230.78 ± 0.181.47 ± 0.39a
AUC at 3.5 mmol/L (60–120 min)31.2 ± 2.732.2 ± 3.114.1 ± 4.015.8 ± 4.0144 ± 12173 ± 1541.5 ± 11.568.7 ± 16.8a
Level at 180 min931 ± 46989 ± 64660 ± 99624 ± 963.3 ± 0.34.1 ± 0.42.77 ± 0.513.35 ± 0.83
∆At 2.8 mmol/L (120–180 min)328 ± 34287 ± 58339 ± 88243 ± 791.1 ± 0.231.0 ± 0.271.54 ± 0.341.29 ± 0.49
Mean level at 120–180 min716 ± 104804 ± 106562 ± 88482 ± 912.4 ± 0.303.9 ± 0.532.61 ± 0.453.15 ± 0.69
AUC at 2.8 mmol/L (120–180 min)47.6 ± 4.150.1 ± 4.329.5 ± 4.827.2 ± 5.4166 ± 14215 ± 19120 ± 24162 ± 40
∆At whole clamp (60–180 min)511 ± 51684 ± 66503 ± 88479 ± 790.77 ± 0.211.4 ± 0.312.58 ± 0.493.11 ± 0.82
  • Data are reported as the mean ± SEM. ∆, change in level. Concentrations (pmol/L or pg/mL) refer to values taken at specific time points, whereas concentrations times minutes (nmol/L · min or pg/mL · min) refer to values for AUC.

  • aProbability level of random difference between the two treatments at P < 0.05 or less (for details, see results).