Table 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics of cohorts at baseline

Characteristics at baselineCohort 1: single autoantibody (N = 1,073)Cohort 2: multiple autoantibodies (N = 1,826)Cohort 3: dysglycemia (N = 1,444)
nSummary datanSummary datanSummary data
Age, median (IQR), years1,07017.00 (9.00–36.00)1,82311.00 (6.00–16.00)1,44213.00 (9.00–33.00)
BMI, median (IQR), kg/m297322.39 (17.76–26.76)1,63018.55 (16.13–23.30)1,28221.39 (16.96–27.25)
Race
 White88382.29%1,60687.95%1,26587.60%
 African American232.14%532.90%332.29%
 Other16415.29%1669.09%14510.04%
 Unknown30.28%10.05%10.07%
Sex
 Male42139.53%91350.00%68247.23%
 Female64460.47%90449.51%75752.42%
 Unknown80.75%90.49%50.35%
Relationship to patients with T1D
 Sibling40337.56%1,06258.16%75152.01%
 Offspring18317.05%37220.37%25117.38%
 Parent35733.27%22612.38%32522.51%
 Second-degree relative11811.00%1397.61%926.37%
 Unknown121.12%271.48%251.73%
HLA genotype: DR risk group
 DR3/DR3635.87%754.11%755.19%
 DR3/DR412311.46%33318.24%28819.94%
 DR3/X28226.28%28315.50%27118.77%
 DR4/DR4534.94%1468.00%1178.10%
 DR4/X31429.26%54329.47%46131.93%
 Other19418.08%1769.64%1419.76%
 Unknown444.10%27014.79%916.30%
Immunological factors
 ICA titer , median (IQR), JDRF units1,0560.00 (0.00–0.00)1,80020.00 (0.00–160.00)1,4180.00 (5.00–160.00)
 mIAA titer, median (IQR)1,0730.002 (0.000–0.008)1,8240.007 (0.002–0.025)1,4440.004 (0.001–0.017)
 GAD65 titer, median (IQR)7150.048 (0.001–0.160)1,3760.162 (0.049–0.522)9910.106 (0.024–0.414)
 GAD65H titer, median (IQR), NIDDK units/mL47862.00 (24.00–187.00)953284.00 (76.00–623.00)794162.00 (41.00–533.00)
 ICA512 titer, median (IQR)7150.033 (0.006–0.677)1,3760.019 (0.001–0.568)9910.023 (0.001–0.685)
 IA-2AH titer, median (IQR), NIDDK units/mL4780.001 (−0.004 to 0.010)9530.000 (0.000–129.000)7941.500 (0.000–217.000)
 ZnT8Ab titer, median (IQR)6090.001 (−0.002 to 0.003)1,0430.021 (0.001–0.209)5850.011 (0.001–0.243)
 ICA positive, n (%)00.00%97553.40%63543.98%
 mIAA positive, n (%)25824.04%85046.55%48733.73%
 GAD65Ab positive, n (%)75770.55%1,62188.77%1,17381.23%
 IA-2A positive, n (%)575.31%84046.00%65045.01%
 ZnT8Ab positive, n (%)00.00%52328.64%26718.49%
Number of positive autoantibodies, %
 11,073100.0000.0053436.98
 200.001,00855.234423.82
 300.0042123.0628219.53
 400.0027815.2221915.17
 500.001196.52654.50
Metabolic factors, mean (SD)
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL1,07389.41 (7.77)1,82688.43 (8.17)1,44492.76 (10.94)
 2-h glucose, mg/dL1,073104.71 (19.07)1,826105.98 (18.85)1,444150.73 (24.27)
 Fasting C-peptide, ng/mL1,0711.79 (0.90)1,8201.52 (0.77)1,4421.85 (1.06)
 Peak C-peptide, ng/mL1,0718.48 (3.56)1,8207.18 (3.22)1,4428.92 (4.20)
 HbA1c, %1,0685.04 (0.31)1,8145.05 (0.31)1,3625.19 (0.35)
  • Cohort 1, baseline is the time of the initial detection of single-autoantibody positivity; cohort 2, baseline is the time of the initial detection of multiple positive autoantibodies; cohort 3, baseline is the time of initial dysglycemia; GAD65Ab positivity was based on either GAD65 titer or GAD65H titer. IA-2A positivity was based on either ICA512 titer or IA-2AH titer. The 5-year risk was the cumulative risk from a Kaplan-Meier estimate.