Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients in the study groups

Placebo0.6 mg1.2 mg1.8 mgP
n17141616
Age (years)50 ± 345 ± 442 ± 342 ± 30.27
Age of T1D diagnosis (years)19 ± 319 ± 321 ± 321 ± 30.92
Duration of T1D (years)30 ± 325 ± 221 ± 320 ± 30.04
Sex (male/female)7/109/98/54/110.29§
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol)7.69 ± 0.17 (61 ± 2)7.46 ± 0.19 (58 ± 2)7.84 ± 0.17 (62 ± 2)7.41 ± 0.15 (57 ± 1.6)0.24
Average glucose (CGMS), mmol/L (mg/dL)9.37 ± 0.44 (169 ± 8)8.99 ± 0.38 (162 ± 7)9.32 ± 0.33 (168 ± 6)9.43 ± 0.27 (170 ± 5)0.93
Fasting glucose (CGMS), mmol/L (mg/dL)9.54 ± 0.66 (172 ± 12)8.71 ± 0.66 (157 ± 12)8.43 ± 0.55 (152 ± 10)9.21 ± 0.44 (166 ± 8)0.61
SD (CGMS), mmol/L (mg/dL)4.2 ± 0.22 (76 ± 4)4.05 ± 0.22 (73 ± 4)4.16 ± 0.16 (75 ± 3)3.9 ± 0.16 (70 ± 3)0.77
Body weight (kg)80 ± 680 ± 496.0 ± 483 ± 40.08
BMI (kg/m2)28 ± 226 ± 333 ± 228 ± 40.20
Total insulin dose (units)46.1 ± 9.552.8 ± 3.771.2 ± 5.5$48.1 ± 4.30.01
Basal insulin dose (units)26.0 ± 5.130.70 ± 2.942.6 ± 4.5$27.0 ± 2.30.01
Bolus insulin dose (units)24.2 ± 5.121.9 ± 2.228.0 ± 3.220.9 ± 2.80.46
Daily carbohydrate intake (g)160 ± 15161 ± 29171 ± 17153 ± 180.95
Daily carbohydrate helpings (meals/day)4.1 ± 0.33.7 ± 0.43.5 ± 0.33.3 ± 0.30.18
SBP (mmHg)122 ± 4125 ± 4121 ± 3120 ± 20.78
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)75 ± 375 ± 375 ± 277 ± 20.92
Pulse rate76 ± 275 ± 275 ± 275 ± 20.16
% time spent at BG concentrations (CGMS)
 <3.05 mmol/L (55 mg/dL)4 ± 13 ± 13 ± 12 ± 10.60
 3.05–3.88 mmol/L (55–70 mg/dL)5 ± 15 ± 14 ± 14 ± 10.32
 3.8–8.8 mmol/L (70–160 mg/dL)43 ± 349 ± 345 ± 244 ± 30.74
 8.8–13.3 mmol/L (160–240 mg/dL)29 ± 227 ± 230 ± 233 ± 20.39
 13.3–22.25 mmol/L (240–400 mg/dL)18 ± 315 ± 218 ± 218 ± 30.94
Episodes of hypoglycemia/total number of SMBG readings (incidence %)
 <3.05 mmol/L (55 mg/dL)1/36 (2)1/37 (2)1/36 (2)1/37 (2)0.84
 3.05–3.88 mmol/L (55–70 mg/dL)2/36 (5)4/37 (10)3/36 (8)1/37 (2)0.31
Glucagon levels (ng/L)97 ± 14106 ± 12112 ± 1895 ± 130.38
Total GLP-1 (pmol/L)23 ± 921 ± 328 ± 520 ± 30.24
Total GIP (pg/mL)78 ± 1473 ± 1891 ± 2073 ± 120.41
FFAs (mmol/L)0.51 ± 0.080.58 ± 0.110.49 ± 0.120.55 ± 0.070.52
CRP (g/L)3.05 ± 0.573.17 ± 1.03.01 ± 0.923.53 ± 0.670.73
  • Data are means ± SEM unless otherwise indicated.

  • ¶Significant compared with placebo (P < 0.05).

  • §χ2 test.

  • $Significant compared with 1.8-mg group (P < 0.05).