Table 1

Characteristics and pregnancy outcomes of women with NGT and GDM, by physiologic subtype

GDM-secretionGDM-sensitivityGDM-mixedNGTAll GDM
Median (IQR)/n (%)P*Median (IQR)/n (%)P*Median (IQR)/n (%)P*Median (IQR)/n (%)Median (IQR)/n (%)
nǂ20 (29.9% of GDM)34 (50.7% of GDM)12 (17.9% of GDM)742 (91.7% of total n)67 (8.3% of total n)
Age (years)29.5 (28–32)28 (25–35)31 (23–33)28 (25–31)29 (26–33)+
% Primigravid2 (10.0%)13 (38.2%)2 (16.7%)262 (35.3%)17 (25.4%)
% Nulliparous3 (15.0%)0.0116 (47.1%)>0.993 (27.3%)0.68362 (48.9%)23 (34.9%)+
% European descent18 (90.0%)34 (100.0%)12 (100.0%)705 (96.2%)65 (97.0%)
Family history of diabetes5 (25.0%)10 (29.4%)3 (25.0%)138 (18.6%)18 (26.9%)
First-trimester study visit
 Gestational age (weeks)8.8 (7.5–10.8)9.4 (7.2–11.6)10.2 (8.2–12.1)9.2 (8.1–11.4)9.3 (7.4–12.0)
 BMI (kg/m2)21.9 (20.7–26.0)0.1530.1 (26.9–37.7)<0.00125.3 (21.3–29.8)0.9823.9 (21.5–27.5)27.0 (22.0–32.4)+
 Hemoglobin A1c (%)5.3 (5.1–5.5)0.885.4 (5.2–5.6)0.0015.5 (5.2–5.7)0.025.2 (5.1–5.4)5.4 (5.1–5.6)+
 Hemoglobin A1c (mmol/mol)34 (32–37)0.8836 (33–38)0.00137 (33–39)0.0233 (32–36)36 (32–38)+
Second-trimester study visit
 Gestational age (weeks)26.4 (25.9–27.7)26.3 (25.6–26.6)26.2 (25.3–27.8)26.2 (25.6–27.1)26.3 (25.6–27.1)
 BMI (kg/m2)25.0 (23.7–28.3)0.2132.3 (28.9–40.9)<0.00128.7 (24.6–32.8)0.6526.6 (24.2–30.1)29.3 (25.6–34.5)+
 Weight gain (kg)6.5 (4.8–8.1)7.0 (4.8–8.9)7.5 (4.3–10.2)6.8 (4.8–8.4)6.8 (4.8–8.9)
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)76 (72–79)0.8590 (81–94)<0.00188 (83–93)<0.00176 (70–79)83 (76–92)+
 1-h glucose OGTT (mg/dL)182 (177–196)<0.001179 (164–189)<0.001187 (176–202)<0.001126 (106–142)182 (169–196)+
 2-h glucose OGTT (mg/dL)155 (133–165)<0.001150 (135–164)<0.001153 (141–169)<0.001101 (86–115)151 (135–164)+
 Fasting insulin (μU/mL)6.0 (4.6–6.7)0.0313.6 (9.9–20.5)<0.0017.6 (6.7–9.0)0.626.9 (4.9–9.8)9.1 (6.6–13.7)+
 1-h insulin OGTT (μU/mL)40.1 (32.0–52.2)0.3384.6 (68.3–108.3)<0.00155.5 (49.2–66.8)0.0745.8 (34.2–61.3)63.9 (45.4–84.9)+
 2-h insulin OGTT (μU/mL)43.9 (34.4–53.2)0.4396.7 (78.0–122.2)<0.00156.9 (50.1–64.1)0.00338.3 (26.9–54.3)58.1 (45.3–97.6)+
 Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda)7.4 (6.2–8.5)>0.992.9 (2.3–4.0)<0.0015.4 (4.7–5.5)<0.0017.9 (5.8–11.1)4.6 (2.9–6.2)+
 Insulin secretion (Stumvoll)594 (501–739)<0.0011,364 (1,063–1,677)<0.001748 (694–870)<0.0011,122 (936–1,289)969 (676–1368)+
  DIo4,491 (3,947–5,318)<0.0014,038 (3,655–4,613)<0.0014,082 (3,824–4,374)<0.0018,587 (6,837–11,125)4,144 (3,760–4,850)+
 Adiponectin (μg/mL)12.7 (8.8–15.4)0.719.0 (6.8–11.3)<0.00110.6 (8.4–12.6)0.2212.4 (9.7–15.3)10.4 (7.1–13.0)+
 Leptin (pg/mL)11,306 (7,361–15,364)0.1425,463 (19,866–34,279)<0.00121,173 (8,373–25,343)0.4013,808 (8,509–21,311)21,092 (12,061–26,579)+
 TNF-α (pg/mL)1.72 (1.22–2.34)1.80 (1.37–2.94)1.65 (1.14–1.80)1.60 (1.18–2.17)1.71 (1.25–2.39)
Delivery
 Gestational age38.8 (38.4–39.7)0.1438.8 (38.2–39.6)0.0138.8 (38.0–39.3)0.0639.5 (38.5–40.3)29.0 (38.3–39.6)+
 Infant birth weight (g)3,400 (2,978–3,685)3,505 (3,209–3,800)3,243 (2,800–3,620)3,403 (3,130–3,690)3,460 (3,055–3,755)
 Infant birth weight (z score)0.20 (−0.54 to 0.86)0.710.57 (−0.01 to 1.37)0.0010.16 (−0.57 to 0.70)>0.990.03 (−0.53 to 0.52)0.39 (−0.44 to 0.87)+
 LGA2 (10.0%)>0.999 (26.5%)<0.0010 (0.0%)>0.9947 (6.3%)11 (16.4%)+
 Cesarean deliveryǂ4 (20.0%)>0.9911 (33.3%)0.033 (25.0%)>0.99111 (15.2%)18 (27.3%)+
 LGA or cesarean deliveryǂ5 (25.0%)>0.9916 (48.5%)<0.0013 (25.0%)>0.99144 (19.7%)24 (36.4%)+
 Infant hypoglycemiaǂ1 (5.6%)8 (23.5%)1 (8.3%)74 (10.7%)10 (15.4%)
 Any adverse outcomeǂ6 (33.3%)>0.9919 (57.6%)0.0033 (25.0%)>0.99196 (28.2%)28 (43.8%)+
  • IQR, interquartile range.

  • * Differences across the four groups (NGT and three GDM subtypes) were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables. When the P value from the Kruskal-Wallis test or Fisher exact test was <0.05, pairwise comparisons between the NGT group and each GDM group were made using Dunn test or Fisher exact test. Bonferroni-adjusted P values are given for these pairwise comparisons in the third, fifth, and seventh columns.

  • + The All GDM group was significantly different from the NGT group when compared using the rank sum test or χ2 test.

  • ǂ Missing data on infant hypoglycemia for 50 participants and delivery route for 12 participants; all other variables had data missing for <10 participants.