Table 1

Descriptive analysis, surrogate parameters of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and metabolic parameters of DALI pilot and lifestyle study population in early pregnancy

NGT (total N = 793)Early GDM (total N = 237)DIP (total N = 5)P (NGT vs. GDM)
nMean ± SD or %nMean ± SD or %nMean ± SD or %
Age (years)78031.9 ± 5.323032.8 ± 5.1531.7 ± 3.70.04
Height (cm)778165.5 ± 6.8227165.7 ± 6.25163.1 ± 1.20.75
Prepregnancy weight (kg)78092.4 ± 13.822896.9 ± 16.1593.3 ± 15.4<0.001
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)77733.7 ± 4.322235.2 ± 5.3535.0 ± 5.3<0.001
BMI at screening (kg/m2)77834.4 ± 4.322636.1 ± 5.6535.6 ± 4.9<0.001
Weight gain until first visit (kg)*7782.0 ± 4.42212.5 ± 7.851.7 ± 4.10.25
Gestational age (weeks)77915.2 ± 3.122815.0 ± 2.4513.4 ± 4.30.36
Waist circumference (cm)764107.2 ± 10.4219110.3 ± 11.65109.4 ± 9.7<0.001
Sum of skinfolds (mm)763107.6 ± 28.1217114.8 ± 30.75104.6 ± 11.90.001
European descent674/77886.6%195/22586.7%1/520.0%1.00
Higher education431/77755.5%121/22354.3%3/560.0%0.81
Lives with partner730/77794.0%203/22191.9%4/580.0%0.28
Smoking132/78116.9%34/23714.3%0/50%0.37
Alcohol consumption46/7815.9%7/2373.0%0/50%0.09
Multiparity389/77750.1%110/22449.1%1/520%0.82
Diabetes in family185/78123.7%64/23727.0%3/560.0%0.30
History of GDM38/4837.9%22/13716.1%1/250.0%0.01
Previous stillbirth49/48010.2%19/14013.6%1/250.0%0.28
Previous macrosomia86/48017.9%44/13831.9%0/20%0.001
Previous congenital malformation16/4823.3%9/1396.5%0/20%0.14
Previous chronic hypertension99/77212.8%31/22214.0%0/50%0.74
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)778116.4 ± 11.1225118.3 ± 10.15123.6 ± 7.00.02
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77872.8 ± 9.222575.1 ± 8.4578.2 ± 6.80.001
Heart rate (bpm)73879.4 ± 10.020682.0 ± 10.6579.2 ± 9.40.001
FPG (mmol/L)7134.6 ± 0.42155.1 ± 0.656.2 ± 1.1<0.001
1-h plasma glucose (mmol/L)6696.7 ± 1.42018.5 ± 2.0412.4 ± 1.7<0.001
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/L)6705.8 ± 1.12007.0 ± 1.659.0 ± 3.3<0.001
Fasting insulin (mU/L)70614.9 ± 11.620918.8 ± 9.0532.1 ± 26.5<0.001
1-h insulin (mU/L)656107.7 ± 73.4194148.2 ± 90.55149.6 ± 107.9<0.001
2-h insulin (mU/L)65676.2 ± 59.1196121.9 ± 97.55187.3 ± 195.7<0.001
AUC glucose (mmol/L)66512.3 ± 1.920014.9 ± 2.7420.5 ± 2.8<0.001
AUC insulin (mU/L)647164.8 ± 94.6193226.1 ± 129.93347.6 ± 231.1<0.001
HOMA IR**7023.1 ± 2.92084.3 ± 2.259.3 ± 8.9<0.001
QUICKI7020.33 ± 0.032080.31 ± 0.0250.29 ± 0.03<0.001
OGIS (mL/min/m2)358424.8 ± 69.072338.9 ± 65.70N/A<0.001
Matsuda index**6444.8 ± 3.51922.9 ± 2.151.8 ± 1.0<0.001
IGI**3392.5 ± 3.2732.1 ± 3.30N/A0.32
DI**3288.0 ± 8.6693.6 ± 3.80N/A<0.001
Stumvoll first phase**647794.4 ± 802.81921151.6 ± 1063.44901.6 ± 1,804.4<0.001
Stumvoll second phase**647505.8 ± 196.4192597.9 ± 260.94547.2 ± 437.2<0.001
Plasma leptin (ng/mL)68736.8 ± 18.520638.7 ± 19.5552.8 ± 16.20.22
Triglycerides (mmol/L)2571.32 ± 0.44991.52 ± 0.5841.39 ± 0.580.002
FFA (mmol/L)3570.67 ± 0.24990.74 ± 0.2440.60 ± 0.290.01
LDL (mmol/L)3572.90 ± 0.75992.99 ± 1.0142.58 ± 0.510.80
HDL (mmol/L)3561.46 ± 0.28991.45 ± 0.3041.21 ± 0.070.30
3-β-Hydroxybutyrate (mmol/L)3570.08 ± 0.08990.11 ± 0.0840.05 ± 0.060.01
  • AUC, area under the curve; DI, disposition index; FFA, free fatty acids; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; HOMA IR, HOMA of insulin resistance (product of fasting plasma insulin and FPG divided by the constant 22.5); IGI, insulinogenic index; NGT, normal glucose tolerant; OGIS, oral glucose insulin sensitivity index; PIH, pregnancy-induced hypertension; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. Boldface type indicates statistical significance.

  • * Weight gain prepregnancy to first study visit.

  • ** Analysis after logarithmic transformation.

  • Oral glucose tolerance test (30- or 90-min) values missing for calculation.