Table 1

Demographic, clinical, and metabolic characteristics of study population stratified into groups based on glucose tolerance status at 3 months postpartum

NGT (n = 301)Prediabetes (n = 60)Diabetes (n = 6)P
At OGTT in pregnancy
 Weeks’ gestation (weeks)30 (28–32)29 (28–30)28 (27–28)0.010
 Age (years)34 (31–37)35 (33–38)36 (33–42)0.075
 Ethnicity (%)0.047
  White72.158.366.7
  Asian10.621.733.3
  Other17.320.00
 Family history of DM (%)48.866.733.30.023
 Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)23.8 (21.5–27.5)24.2 (21.4–27.6)25.4 (22.5–28.1)0.773
 Gestational weight gain up to OGTT (kg)10.3 (7.7–13.6)10.5 (7.6–14.5)5.0 (4.5–7.3)0.045
 Insulin sensitivity/resistance
  Matsuda index4.7 (3.1–7.1)3.4 (2.5–5.1)7.3 (4.9–9.8)0.001
  HOMA-IR1.6 (1.0–2.7)2.1 (1.4–3.1)1.2 (0.6–1.9)0.013
 β-Cell function
  ISSI-2736 (563–912)557 (481–707)418 (348–583)<0.0001
  Insulinogenic index/HOMA-IR10.3 (6.6–16.4)6.8 (4.2–9.1)3.3 (3.0–12.9)<0.0001
 Glucose tolerance on OGTT (%)<0.0001
  Normal58.833.30
  GIGT19.613.316.7
  GDM21.653.383.3
 CMPF (ng/mL)75.1 (57.7–101.5)70.3 (55.5–99.6)69.6 (53.2–98.0)0.788
 HPL (mg/L)2.0 (1.5–3.7)2.0 (1.5–3.1)1.5 (1.2–2.6)0.312
 Prolactin (ng/mL)93.4 (72.9–121.9)82.7 (60.4–97.5)79.2 (52.2–100.4)0.004
At 3 months postpartum
 Time since delivery (months)3 (3–4)3 (3–3)3.5 (3–4)0.140
 BMI (kg/m2)25.7 (22.9–29.1)26.6 (24.4–30.9)24.4 (22.5–27.4)0.368
 Waist circumference (cm)88 (82–96)90 (83–96)79 (75–82)0.106
 Breast-feeding (%)82.771.783.30.136
 Insulin sensitivity/resistance
  Matsuda index11.1 (7.2–15.8)8.4 (5.4–10.7)8.6 (7.0–11.6)<0.0001
  HOMA-IR0.8 (0.6–1.3)0.9 (0.6–1.5)1.0 (0.7–1.4)0.402
 β-Cell function
  ISSI-2805 (620–1025)601 (505–666)303 (265–355)<0.0001
  Insulinogenic index/HOMA-IR10.7 (6.9–17.4)7.5 (5.4–10.0)3.8 (3.1–5.1)<0.0001
 OGTT results
  Fasting glucose (mmol/L)4.5 (4.3–4.8)4.6 (4.4–5.0)4.6 (4.5–5.5)0.135
  AUCglucose12.7 (11.1–14.2)16.4 (15.1–17.5)20.8 (19.2–21.4)<0.0001
  • Continuous variables are presented as median (interquartile range). Categorical variables are presented as proportions. DM, diabetes.