Table 1

Summary of clinical metrics that characterize glucose control performance of 20 adult subjects controlled by PID and MPC algorithms for 27.5-h sessions

MPCPIDP
Overall study
 Glucose (mg/dL)138 (20.40)160 (31.5)0.012*
 Glucose at 7:00 a.m. (mg/dL)119 (28.0)135 (51.7)0.229
 % time <70 mg/dL4.6 (4.65)2.93 (5.92)0.329
 % time 80–140 mg/dL49.8 (13.1)36.5 (17.1)0.009*
 % time >180 mg/dL21.0 (12.1)33.3 (19.1)0.020*
 % time 70–180 mg/dL74.4 (11.0)63.7 (16.4)0.021*
 No. of <70 mg/dL events >15 min2.75 (3.02)1.75 (4.05)0.382
 No. of treatments2.60 (2.68)1.60 (2.68)0.246
 LBGI1.21 (0.86)0.82 (1.09)0.222
 HBGI4.40 (2.56)7.51 (4.52)0.011*
Overnight only
 Glucose (mg/dL)109 (15.1)126 (35.9)0.058
 % time <70 mg/dL7.29 (10.2)3.59 (9.18)0.235
 % time 80–140 mg/dL70.2 (23.3)57.9 (34.2)0.189
 % time >180 mg/dL3.59 (7.37)12.7 (22.7)0.095
 % time 70–180 mg/dL89.1 (12.4)83.7 (22.4)0.351
 No. of <70 mg/dL events >15 min1.25 (2.00)0.65 (1.81)0.326
 No. of treatments1.05 (1.36)0.35 (0.81)0.055
 LBGI1.94 (1.74)1.18 (1.73)0.173
 HBGI0.96 (1.30)2.48 (3.58)0.082
5-hour postprandial period after unannounced meal (65 g CHO)
 Mean glucose (mg/dL)181 (42.0)220 (55.9)0.019*
 Max Δglucose (mg/dL)146 (44.3)142 (43.1)0.774
 % time <70 mg/dL1.89 (3.58)1.64 (5.70)0.871
 % time 80–140 mg/dL22.2 (18.7)13.7 (18.9)0.160
 % time >180 mg/dL52.0 (30.3)66.9 (31.6)0.135
 % time 70–180 mg/dL46.1 (28.8)31.5 (28.8)0.116
 Minutes to <180 mg/dL157 (92.5)188 (102)0.313
 HBGI10.6 (6.91)17.9 (10.2)0.012*
  • Data are means (SD). Sessions include a 65-g carbohydrate dinner, a 50-g carbohydrate breakfast, and an unannounced 65-g carbohydrate lunch. CHO, carbohydrate; LBGI, low BG index.

  • *Significance with α = 0.05.