Table 1

Comparative mitochondrial energetics of β-hydroxybutyrate oxidation

GlucosePalmitatePyruvateβ-HB
O2 used (L/mol)13451556101
Heat of combustion (kcal/mol)6702,385279487
O2 cost of calorie (mL/kcal)200216201207
Heat of combustion per C2 (kcal/mol)224298186244
  • In terms of oxygen (O2) cost, the energy yield of β-HB oxidation is comparable to those of glucose and pyruvate, and lower than that of palmitate. If the energy yield is calculated per C2 unit, β-HB oxidation is superior to glucose and far better than palmitate. β-HB, β-hydroxybutyrate.

  • ¶According to Sato et al. (41).