Table 2

Adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI)* of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality according to categories of HbA1c and fasting glucose at baseline in persons without diagnosed diabetes, by race/ethnicity group, U.S. adults aged 18 years or older (NHANES III, 1988–1994), N = 12,722

HbA1c <5.0%HbA1c 5.0–5.6%HbA1c 5.7–6.5%HbA1c ≥6.5%
Cardiovascular mortality, n = 804 deaths
 Non-Hispanic white0.74 (0.38–1.41)1 (ref)1.13 (0.83–1.53)1.39 (0.77–2.51)
 Non-Hispanic black0.94 (0.45–1.96)1 (ref)1.10 (0.78–1.56)2.25 (0.89–5.64)
 Mexican American0.60 (0.18–1.98)1 (ref)1.15 (0.63–2.10)3.90 (1.86–8.17)
All-cause mortality, n = 3,415 deaths
 Non-Hispanic white1.18 (0.91–1.54)1 (ref)1.12 (0.96–1.32)1.50 (1.09–2.05)
 Non-Hispanic black1.27 (0.88–1.81)1 (ref)1.14 (0.98–1.32)2.00 (1.40–2.85)
 Mexican American0.99 (0.60–1.63)1 (ref)1.15 (0.84–1.58)1.74 (1.13–2.67)
Fasting glucose <90 mg/dLFasting glucose 90–99 mg/dLFasting glucose 100–125 mg/dLFasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL
Cardiovascular mortality, n = 363 deaths
 Non-Hispanic white0.96 (0.51–1.80)1 (ref)1.43 (0.87–2.35)1.82 (0.98–3.36)
 Non-Hispanic black0.77 (0.29–2.05)1 (ref)0.97 (0.45–2.07)1.60 (0.42–6.13)
 Mexican American1.96 (0.86–4.47)1 (ref)1.11 (0.55–2.24)1.22 (0.39–3.84)
All-cause mortality, n = 1,536 deaths
 Non-Hispanic white0.96 (0.76–1.21)1 (ref)1.16 (0.97–1.38)1.47 (1.04–2.08)
 Non-Hispanic black1.09 (0.71–1.66)1 (ref)1.16 (0.85–1.59)2.40 (1.50–3.84)
 Mexican American0.84 (0.46–1.53)1 (ref)0.97 (0.61–1.52)1.48 (0.69–3.17)
  • * Adjusted for age, sex, lipids, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, education, smoking status, hypertension, and physical activity;

  • Subsample of 5,676 participants who attended the morning examination and had measurements of fasting plasma glucose.