Table 1

Descriptive statistics for the entire cohort and patients with a baseline A1C >7%, >7.5%, or >8%

All Initial A1C >7% Initial A1C >7.5% Initial A1C >8%
VariablesN = 5,239 (100%)n = 1,168 (22%)n = 679 (13%)n = 429 (8%)
Age, years58 (49, 67)54 (46, 62)53 (44, 61)52 (43, 59)
Sex
 Male2,367 (45)587 (50)347 (51)222 (52)
 Female2,872 (55)581 (50)332 (49)207 (48)
Race
 White/Caucasian4,017 (77)873 (75)490 (72)307 (72)
 Black/African American889 (17)227 (20)149 (22)98 (23)
 Other146 (3)29 (2)14 (2)9 (2)
 Missing187 (3)39 (3)26 (4)15 (3)
Insurance
 Medicaid225 (4)69 (6)49 (7)39 (9)
 Medicare2,059 (39)394 (34)223 (33)132 (31)
 Private1,981 (38)497 (43)279 (41)173 (40)
 Other215 (4)52 (4)26 (4)18 (4)
 Missing759 (15)156 (13)102 (15)67 (16)
Smoking status
 Never2,390 (46)496 (42)291 (43)189 (44)
 Former1,813 (35)360 (31)185 (27)101 (24)
 Current754 (14)217 (19)138 (20)94 (22)
 Missing282 (5)95 (8)65 (10)45 (10)
DCSI0 (0, 2)0 (0, 2)0 (0, 2)0 (0, 2)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)68.3 (13.9, 92.6)76.2 (14.9, 98.9)76.9 (15.7, 99.8)82.6 (16.0, 102.1)
Deyo-modified Charlson comorbidity index2 (1, 3)1 (1, 3)1 (1, 3)1 (1, 3)
Number of active nondiabetic prescription medications3 (2, 5)3 (2, 4)3 (2, 4)3 (2, 4)
Preventive exams in the past 3 years (V70.0)*1,989 (38)398 (34)206 (30)110 (26)
Coronary heart disease665 (13)124 (11)60 (9)31 (7)
Cerebrovascular accident422 (8)66 (6)40 (6)25 (6)
Heart failure233 (4)51 (4)29 (4)19 (4)
Hypertension3,607 (69)776 (66)437 (64)261 (61)
  • Data are presented as the median (IQR) or as n (%).

  • DCSI, Diabetes Complication and Severity Index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate (calculated via Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation).

  • *ICD-9 diagnosis code for a general medical examination at a health care facility.