Table 2

Longitudinal association of treatment group and HbA1c with traditional cardiovascular risk factors during the DCCT/EDIC study, minimally adjusted for other factors

Traditional cardiovascular risk factors
BMISystolicBP (mmHg)DiastolicBP(mmHg)Pulse pressure(mmHg)Pulse rate (bpm)Triglycerides (mg/dL)*HDL cholesterol(mg/dL)LDL cholesterol(mg/dL)
Men(kg/m2)Women (kg/m2)
Intensive vs. conventional0.82 ± 0.121.30 ± 0.150.24 ± 0.370.22 ± 0.250.18 ± 0.26−0.93 ± 0.33−6.44 ± 1.71−0.09 ± 0.47−1.92 ± 1.10
<0.0001<0.00010.51960.37220.48940.00550.00030.84890.0808
(6.87)(8.76)(0.64)(0.89)(0.69)(−2.78)(−3.64)(−0.19)(−1.75)
Current HbA1c level (%)−0.30 ± 0.01−0.19 ± 0.01−0.38 ± 0.060.18 ± 0.04−0.48 ± 0.050.31 ± 0.055.77 ± 0.210.12 ± 0.053.36 ± 0.13
<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.0075<0.0001
(−26.61)(−14.58)(–6.46)(4.32)(−9.91)(6.38)(27.66)(2.67)(26.17)
DCCT/EDIC study time-weighted HbA1c level (%)−0.40 ± 0.02−0.13 ± 0.02−0.09 ± 0.100.22 ± 0.07−0.12 ± 0.081.17 ± 0.098.15 ± 0.34−0.05 ± 0.073.63 ± 0.20
<0.0001<0.00010.38060.00180.1218<0.0001<0.00010.4595<0.0001
(−22.02)(−6.12)(−0.88)(3.13)(−1.55)(13.75)(24.60)(−0.74)(17.99)
DCCT updated HbA1c level (%)−0.33 ± 0.02−0.09 ± 0.03−0.15 ± 0.100.10 ± 0.07−0.12 ± 0.081.02 ± 0.095.86 ± 0.39−0.08 ± 0.092.65 ± 0.23
<0.00010.00060.13480.15630.1224<0.0001<0.00010.3855<0.0001
(−14.35)(−3.45)(−1.50)(1.42)(−1.55)(11.62)(15.48)(−0.87)(11.41)
  • Each cell represents a single generalized linear mixed model adjusting for baseline age, primary prevention vs. secondary intervention group, and sex when appropriate. Data are β-estimates ± SE and P values (t statistics). β-Estimates are equal to the mean difference between groups or the slope of the association. The signed t statistic corresponds to the magnitude and directionality of the association. BP, blood pressure.

  • *Triglyceride values were log transformed and the percentage change in triglyceride levels per 1-unit change in predictor is shown [100(eβ − 1)] ± [100(eβ*SE)].

  • †Each predictor is entered into the model as a time-dependent covariate. The DCCT updated mean is defined as the cumulative glycemic exposure from baseline up to and including the HbA1c level at each visit through DCCT. The DCCT/EDIC study time-weighted mean was calculated using the quarterly DCCT and annual EDIC study values weighted by 3 and 12 months, respectively.