Table 1

Reversion on the risk of multiple autoantibodies and/or type 1 diabetes based on the type and order of islet autoantibodies initially developed

RiskAb(s) developedFollow-up pattern of specific AbOutcome developedReversion on outcome
OutcomeAb number through follow-up & order developed relative to specific AbTotal (N)Reversion or persistence of specific Ab groupNPercent of total (%)NPercent of group (%)Months to outcome (median)Incidence per 100 person-yearsAdjusted for age of seroconversion HR (95% CI)Fully adjusted* HR (95% CI)P value
Multiple AbsSingle, IAA first245Persistent IAA17370.613980.45.192.9refref
Reverted IAA7229.41622. (0.14–0.44)0.24 (0.14–0.44)<0.0001
Single, GADA first242Persistent GADA19781.411156.48.333.8refref
Reverted GADA4518.636.733.61.60.07 (0.02–0.21)0.10 (0.03–0.29)0.0001
Type 1 diabetesSingle, IAA first90Persistent IAA3437.81029.411.513.6refref
Reverted IAA5662.211.845.00.40.05 (0.01–0.44)0.02 (0.00–0.42)0.02
Multiple, IAA first139Remained persistent IAA11482.05649.119.317.7refref
Reverted IAA after multiple2518.0936. (0.34–1.51)1.18 (0.54–2.57)0.68
Multiple, IAA after other Abs186Persistent IAA14175.86143.317.419.2refref
Reverted IAA4524.21533.348.38.30.78 (0.42–1.44)0.95 (0.48–1.88)0.88
Single, GADA first128Persistent GADA8667.244.737.81.8refref
Reverted GADA4232.800.0N/A0.00.000.00
Multiple, GADA first111Remained persistent GADA10594.62826.724.810.0refref
Reverted GADA after multiple65.4466.725.521.02.21 (0.76–6.36)2.34 (0.55–10.4)0.25
Multiple, GADA after other Abs214Persistent GADA19289.77338.018.612.6refref
Reverted GADA2210.31777.331.323.02.70 (1.57–4.63)3.77 (2.04–6.96)<0.0001
Single or multiple IA-2A anytime290Persistent IA-2A28196.912644.820.918.3refref
Reverted IA-2A93.1222. (0.06–1.05)0.35 (0.08–1.46)0.15
  • Ab, autoantibody; N/A, not applicable given the numerator and denominator are 0.

  • *Adjusted for HLA-DR-DQ, sex, age of autoantibody seroconversion, family history of type 1 diabetes, country of residence, presence of other autoantibodies, baseline autoantibody level at time of seroconversion, and change in autoantibody levels from the initial to the consecutive sample.