Table 1

Characteristics of the study groups

Diabetes without DR(n = 159)Diabetes with DR(n = 153)P value
Sex (male/female)82/7776/770.74
Age (years)59 (48–66)61 (54–68)0.01
Disease duration (years)6 (2–10)11 (6–20)<0.01
Insulin treatment (n)20 (12.6%)84 (54.9%)<0.01
Smoking (yes/past/never)71/54/3278/44/300.51
Antiplatelet agents (yes/no)112/47 (29.6%)82/71 (46.4%)<0.01
Dyslipidemia (yes/no)88/71 (44.7%)79/74 (48.4%)0.51
Hypertension (yes/no)83/76 (47.8%)48/105 (68.3%)<0.01
Systolic BP (mmHg)134 (123–145)143 (133–159)<0.01
Diastolic BP (mmHg)76 (70–83)77.5 (68.5–85.5)0.75
HR (bpm)75 (68–82)77 (70–86)0.08
BMI (kg/m2)30.3 (27.4–34.0)31.1 (28.3–35)0.25
Waist circumference (cm)103 (96–111)107.5 (163–114)<0.01
Hemoglobin A1c (mmol/mol)53 (48–63)65 (55–76)<0.01
Hemoglobin A1c (%)7.1 (6.5–7.9)8.1 (7.2–9.1)<0.01
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)184 (163–207)181 (162–204.5)0.99
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)47 (40–57)50.5 (42–60.5)0.03
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)108 (90.2–130.2)105.4 (86.5–127.8)0.27
Triglycerides (mmol/L)118 (89–171)116 (83–168)0.62
Serum creatinine (μmol/L)0.79 (0.69–0.92)0.79 (0.68–0.93)0.80
Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g)5.8 (3.2–11)12.4 (6–32.7)<0.01
Carotid plaques, n (%)83 (52.2%)104 (68%)<0.01
  • Data are presented as the median (Q1–Q3) unless otherwise indicated. BP, blood pressure; HR, heart rate.