Table 1

Fasting plasma substrate and hormone concentrations and rates of TGD and EGP during the euglycemic insulin clamp

BaselinePlacebo treatmentP valueBaselineDapagliflozin treatmentP value
Fasting plasma
 Glucose (mg/dL)172 ± 8160 ± 9NS167 ± 13128 ± 6<0.01
 Insulin (μU/mL)14 ± 913 ± 5NS12 ± 36 ± 2<0.01
 Glucagon (pg/mL)72 ± 1779 ± 11NS77 ± 894 ± 13<0.05
 Glucagon-to-insulin ratio10 ± 212 ± 3NS14 ± 535 ± 11<0.01
 FFA (μmol/L)0.46 ± 0.040.42 ± 0.04NS0.50 ± 0.040.46 ± 0.04NS
Ketones (mmol/L)
 Fasting0.11 ± 0.020.09 ± 0.02NS0.05 ± 0.010.20 ± 0.05<0.001
 Clamp0.08 ± 0.020.05 ± 0.01NS0.06 ± 0.010.05 ± 0.01NS
TGD/SSPI (mg/kg ⋅ min) per μU/mL3.18 ± 0.513.57 ± 0.51NS3.85 ± 0.715.22 ± 0.56<0.01
EGP (mg/kg ⋅ min)
 Fasting 2.02 ± 0.081.99 ± 0.09NS1.97 ± 0.1342.43 ± 0.13<0.01
 Clamp 0.48 ± 0.160.29 ± 0.12NS0.22 ± 0.080.34 ± 0.13NS
 Urinary glucose excretion (g/24 h)1.38 ± 0.741.90 ± 0.78NS1.95 ± 0.5882.5 ± 10.5<0.001
  • SSPI, steady-state plasma insulin concentration.