Table 2

Hazard ratios for death among participants with diabetes compared with those without diabetes at baseline, estimated by Cox regression (CSH) and Fine-Gray regression (PSH), after adjustment for potential risk factors according to cause of death

Cardiovascular deathCancer deathNoncardiovascular noncancer death
CSHPSHCSHPSHCSHPSH
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
Men
 Diabetes2.03 (1.63–2.52)<0.0011.99 (1.60–2.49)<0.0011.37 (1.13–1.67)0.0021.35 (1.10–1.65)0.0041.53 (1.23–1.91)<0.0011.50 (1.20–1.89)<0.001
 Age (1 year)1.11 (1.10–1.13)<0.0011.11 (1.10–1.12)<0.0011.07 (1.06–1.08)<0.0011.07 (1.06–1.08)<0.0011.07 (1.06–1.08)<0.0011.07 (1.06–1.08)<0.001
 Smoker (ref. nonsmoker)1.52 (1.19–1.95)<0.0011.51 (1.17–1.94)0.0021.23 (1.00–1.52)0.0481.22 (0.99–1.51)0.0621.17 (0.92–1.48)0.2091.15 (0.90–1.48)0.260
 BMI (1 kg/m2 change)0.98 (0.95–1.01)0.2690.98 (0.95–1.02)0.4100.98 (0.96–1.01)0.1350.98 (0.95–1.01)0.2301.00 (0.97–1.02)0.7561.00 (0.96–1.03)0.840
 Systolic blood pressure (10 mmHg change)1.05 (0.99–1.11)0.0811.05 (0.98–1.13)0.1501.02 (0.98–1.07)0.3461.03 (0.97–1.09)0.4000.99 (0.94–1.04)0.6530.99 (0.93–1.05)0.700
 Total cholesterol (10 mg/dL change)1.00 (0.97–1.02)0.9241.00 (0.97–1.03)0.9990.97 (0.95–1.00)0.0170.98 (0.95–1.00)0.0370.97 (0.94–0.99)0.0090.97 (0.94–1.00)0.032
 HDL cholesterol (10 mg/dL change)0.91 (0.83–1.00)0.0400.91 (0.83–0.99)0.0371.02 (0.95–1.10)0.5461.02 (0.98–0.95)0.5801.04 (0.96–1.12)0.3841.04 (0.95–1.13)0.450
Women
 Diabetes2.28 (1.75–2.97)<0.0012.23 (1.70–2.91)<0.0011.68 (1.29–2.20)<0.0011.66 (1.25–2.19)<0.0011.89 (1.43–2.48)<0.0011.84 (1.39–2.45)<0.001
 Age (1 year)1.14 (1.12–1.16)<0.0011.14 (1.11–1.16)<0.0011.06 (1.05–1.08)<0.0011.06 (1.05–1.08)<0.0011.12 (1.10–1.14)<0.0011.12 (1.10–1.14)<0.001
 Smoker (ref. nonsmoker)0.92 (0.40–2.11)0.8410.92 (0.38–2.20)0.8400.91 (0.54–1.53)0.7240.91 (0.53–1.55)0.7100.75 (0.35–1.64)0.4780.74 (0.34–1.61)0.450
 BMI (1 kg/m2 change)0.99 (0.96–1.02)0.5120.99 (0.96–1.02)0.5801.01 (0.99–1.04)0.2851.01 (0.99–1.04)0.3100.99 (0.96–1.02)0.4400.99 (0.96–1.02)0.540
 Systolic blood pressure (10 mmHg change)0.92 (0.87–0.98)0.0140.93 (0.87–1.00)0.0540.93 (0.87–0.99)0.0180.93 (0.86–1.01)0.0910.88 (0.83–0.94)<0.0010.89 (0.82–0.96)0.002
 Total cholesterol (10 mg/dL change)1.00 (0.97–1.03)0.8081.00 (0.96–1.03)0.8600.99 (0.96–1.01)0.3460.99 (0.96–1.02)0.4300.96 (0.93–0.99)0.0060.96 (0.93–0.99)0.016
 HDL cholesterol (10 mg/dL change)0.87 (0.79–0.96)0.0040.87 (0.78–0.96)0.0080.92 (0.84–1.00)0.0520.92 (0.84–1.01)0.0760.99 (0.91–1.08)0.8150.99 (0.90–1.09)0.870
  • All models are mutually adjusted. Systolic blood pressure and total and HDL cholesterol have been estimated for 10-unit increase.

  • HR, hazard ratio.