Table 1

Participant characteristics at baseline

Total (n = 182)Enhanced UC (n = 45)DECIDE Self-Study (n = 46)DECIDE Individual (n = 45)DECIDE Group (n = 46)
Age (years)*57.18 (10.55)54.51 (10.34)60.57 (10.27)*54.82 (9.31)58.72 (11.21)
Female, n (%)127 (70%)32 (71%)33 (72%)30 (67%)32 (70%)
Education (years)13.21 (2.30)13.51 (2.27)12.76 (2.55)13.38 (1.83)13.22 (2.49)
Literacy (WRAT-3)8.79 (3.59)9.48 (2.90)8.33 (3.80)8.62 (3.88)8.74 (3.72)
 >12th grade, n (%)48 (27%)9 (20%)12 (27%)14 (31%)13 (29%)
 9–12th grade, n (%)46 (26%)17 (38%)8 (18%)9 (20%)12 (27%)
 5–8th grade, n (%)51 (28%)14 (31%)16 (36%)13 (29%)8 (18%)
 <5th grade, n (%)35 (19%)5 (11%)9 (20%)9 (20%)12 (27%)
Annual income <$10,830, n (%)55 (30%)9 (20%)13 (28%)18 (40%)16 (35%)
A1C (%), mmol/mol9.03 (1.70), 759.24 (1.69), 778.78 (1.65), 729.18 (1.68), 778.93 (1.81), 74
SBP (mmHg)137.58 (23.22)134.34 (20.69)143.64 (24.46)136.01 (22.84)136.22 (24.29)
DBP (mmHg)95.09 (14.38)93.50 (13.71)98.11 (14.82)94.80 (15.04)93.92 (13.94)
HDL (mg/dL)53.69 (17.03)51.20 (13.88)54.41 (20.77)51.98 (15.04)57.04 (17.42)
LDL (mg/dL)105.54 (39.36)115.11 (54.19)97.83 (32.26)100.91 (28.56)108.33 (36.37)
Total Health Problem-Solving Scale19.99 (3.91)19.83 (3.24)19.97 (4.12)19.95 (4.22)20.21 (4.10)
Diabetes and CVD knowledge12.56 (2.47)12.89 (2.52)12.16 (2.47)12.42 (2.77)12.76 (2.08)
General diet (no. days)4.03 (2.02)3.99 (2.03)4.20 (1.77)4.19 (1.92)3.75 (2.34)
Specific diet (no. days)3.79 (1.84)3.50 (1.73)4.16 (1.93)4.00 (1.61)3.52 (2.02)
Exercise (no. days)3.38 (2.34)3.00 (2.50)3.03 (2.16)3.77 (2.37)3.67 (2.28)
Blood glucose testing (no. days)4.42 (2.70)4.61 (2.71)5.08 (2.34)3.91 (2.63)4.08 (2.99)
PHQ-21.44 (1.64)1.84 (1.81)1.22 (1.68)1.38 (1.47)1.30 (1.56)
PHQ-2 positive screen, n (%)41 (23%)14 (8%)7 (4%)10 (6%)10 (6%)
Insulin shot, n (%)111 (61%)29 (64%)28 (61%)27 (60%)27 (59%)
Diabetes pills, n (%)132 (73%)31 (69%)33 (72%)30 (67%)38 (83%)
  • Data are mean (SD), except where indicated.

  • *Significantly different mean between Enhanced UC and Self-Study conditions at P < 0.05.