Table 1

Description of offspring born between 1982 and 2004

FNNon-FN
Outcome/factorGDM(n = 3,289)No GDM(n = 47,441)GDM(n = 5,660)No GDM(n = 264,618)
Birth weight (kg)3.75 ± 0.653.50 ± 0.623.52 ± 0.623.43 ± 0.58
LGA40.4216.1523.7610.87
SGA3.698.246.589.48
Preterm birth 10.536.729.176.18
Female sex47.3749.0547.5448.65
Rural resident76.7170.4130.8137.31
Birth year
 1982–198928.5527.5729.6535.28
 1990–199423.8724.7126.9323.96
 1995–199919.9123.8720.0021.27
 2000–200427.6723.8523.4319.40
Income
 Quintile 166.6160.5321.9117.81
 Quintile 216.8020.2321.7720.37
 Quintile 38.578.3720.8821.10
 Quintile 44.515.9820.1021.72
 Quintile 53.514.8915.3219.01
Follow-up (years)15.07 (9.79, 20.71)15.23 (9.87, 20.50)14.87 (8.75, 20.57)15.37 (9.01, 21.42)
Type 2 diabetes3.891.120.440.19
Incidence of type 2 diabetes (per 1,000 person-years)1.82 (1.50–2.23)0.53 (0.48–0.58)0.23 (0.15–0.36)0.11 (0.10–0.12)
  • Data are mean ± SD, %, median (interquartile range), or median (95% CI). Children born in 2005 or later could not reach the end point of development of type 2 diabetes because we defined first diagnosis of diabetes at age <7 years as type 1 diabetes. LGA, large for gestational age (>90th percentile); SGA, small for gestational age (<10th percentile).