Table 2

Selected measures for the evaluation of psychosocial constructs in the clinical setting

Topic areaMeasure titleCitationsDescriptionValidated population
Diabetes-related distressProblem Areas in Diabetes (PAID)Polonsky WH, Anderson BJ, Lohrer PA, et al. Assessment of diabetes-related distress. Diabetes Care 1995;18:754–76020-item measure of diabetes-specific distress measuring emotional distress and burden associated with diabetesAdults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Welch G, Weinger K, Anderson B, Polonsky WH. Responsiveness of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire. Diabet Med 2003;20:69–72
Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS)Polonsky WH, Fisher L, Earles J, et al. Assessing psychosocial stress in diabetes: development of the Diabetes Distress Scale. Diabetes Care 2005;28:626–63117-item questionnaire measuring diabetes-specific distress in four domains: emotional burden, diabetes interpersonal distress, physician-related distress, and regimen-related distressAdults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Fisher L, Hessler DM, Polonsky WH, Mullan J. When is diabetes distress clinically meaningful? Establishing cut points for the Diabetes Distress Scale. Diabetes Care 2012;35:259–64 (39)
PAID–Pediatric Version (PAID-Peds)Markowitz JT, Volkening LK, Butler DA, Laffel LM. Youth-perceived burden of type 1 diabetes: Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey-Pediatric Version (PAID-Peds). J Diabetes Sci Technol 2015;9:1080–108520-item measure of diabetes burdenYouth (ages 8–17 years) with type 1 diabetes
PAID–Teen VersionWeissberg-Benchell J, Antisdel-Lomaglio, J. Diabetes-specific emotional distress among adolescents: feasibility, reliability, and validity of the problem areas in diabetes-teen version. Pediatr Diabetes 2011;12:341–34426-item questionnaire measuring perceived burden of diabetesAdolescents (ages 11–19 years) with diabetes
PAID–Parent Revised version (PAID-PR)Markowitz JT, Volkening LK, Butler DA, Antisdel-Lomaglio JH, Anderson BJ, Laffel LM. Re-examining a measure of diabetes-related burden in parents of young people with type 1 diabetes: the Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey–Parent Revised version (PAID-PR). Diabet Med 2012;29:526–53018-item questionnaire assessing perceived parental burden of diabetesParents of children and adolescents (ages 8–18 years) with type 1 diabetes
DepressionPatient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Kroenke K, et al. Utility of new procedure for diagnosis mental-disorders in primary-care: the PRIME-MD 1000 Study. JAMA 1994;272:1749–17569-item measure of depressive symptoms (corresponding to criteria for major depressive disorder)Adults
Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II)Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II, 2nd ed. San Antonio, TX, Harcourt, Brace & Company, 199621-item questionnaire evaluating somatic and cognitive symptoms of depressionAdults
Child Depression Inventory (CDI) (current edition is CDI-2)Kovacs, M. The Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI): Technical Manual Update. North Tonawanda, NY, Multi-Health Systems, 200327-item measure assessing depressive symptoms using child and parent reportYouth (ages 7–17 years)
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clinical Gerontologist 1986;5:165–17215-item measure was developed to assess depression in older adultsAdults (ages 55–85 years)
Eating disordersEating Disorders Inventory–3 (EDI-3)Garner DM. Eating Disorder Inventory-3: Professional Manual. Odessa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources, 20042 interview and self-report surveys aimed at the measurement of psychological traits or symptom clusters relevant to the development and maintenance of eating disordersFemales (ages 13–53 years)
Diabetes Eating Problems Survey (DEPS-R)Markowitz JT, Butler DA, Volkening LK, Antisdel JE, Anderson BJ, Laffel LM. Brief screening tool for disordered eating in diabetes: internal consistency and external validity in a contemporary sample of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2010;33:495–50016-item self-report measure designed to assess diabetes-specific eating issuesYouth (ages 13–19 years) with type 1 diabetes
Diabetes Treatment and Satiety Scale (DTSS-20)Young-Hyman D, Davis C, Grigsby C, Looney S, Peterson C. Development of the Diabetes Treatment and Satiety Scale: DTSS-20 (Abstract). Diabetes 2011;60(Suppl. 1):A21820-item self-report measure that assesses perception of satiety and fullness in the context of food intake, physical activity, medication dosing, and glycemic levelsYouth (ages 10–17 years) with type 1 diabetes
Health literacy and numeracyGeneral Health Numeracy Test (GHNT)Osborn CY, Wallston KA, Shpigel A, Cavanaugh K, Kripalani S, Rothman RL. Development and validation of the General Health Numeracy Test (GHNT). Patient Educ Couns 2013;91:350–35621-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess patient level of understanding of the use of numbers in medications and healthAdults
Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT)Huizinga MM, Elasy TA, Wallston KA, et al. Development and validation of the Diabetes Numeracy Test (DNT). BMC Health Ser Res 2008;1:965-, 15-, and 43-item word problem–based test to assess understanding of tables, graphs, and figures specific to the management of diabetesAdults (ages 18–80 years)
Brief Health Literacy Scale (BHLS)Wallston KA, Cawthon C, McNaughton CD, Rothman RL, Osborn CY, Kripalani S. Psychometric properties of the Brief Health Literacy Screen in clinical practice. J Gen Intern Med 2014;29:119–1263-item measure read aloud to patients in an outpatient and emergency department setting to assess understanding of health conceptsAdults
Self-care efficacyDiabetes self-efficacyRitter PL, Lorig K, Laurent D. Characteristics of the Spanish- and English-language self-efficacy to manage diabetes scales. Diabetes Educ 2016;42:167–1778-item self-report scale designed to assess confidence in performing diabetes self-care activitiesAdults
Self-efficacy for diabetes managementIannotti RJ, Schneider S, Nansel TR, et al. Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and diabetes self-management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2006;27:98–105 (26)10-item self-report self-efficacy scaleAdolescents (ages 10–16 years) with type 1 diabetes
AnxietyState-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC)Spielberger CD, Edwards CD, Lushene R, Monturi J, Plotzek D. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children Professional Manual. Menlo Park, CA, Mind Garden, Inc., 197340 items on two dimensions—trait and state anxietyYouth with and without type 1 diabetes
Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)Beck AT, Steer RA. Beck Anxiety Inventory Manual. San Antonio, TX, The Psychological Corporation, 199321 items assessing self-reported anxietyAdults
Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II (HFS-II)Cox DJ, Irvine A, Gonder-Frederick L, Nowacek G, Butterfield J. Fear of hypoglycemia: quantification, validation, and utilization. Diabetes Care 1987;10:617–621 (63)33 items assessing behavioral and worry dimensions of hypoglycemia in adultsAdults with type 1 diabetes
Gonder-Frederick LA, Schmidt KM, Vajda KA, et al. Psychometric properties of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II for adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011;34:801–806 (71)
Children’s Hypoglycemia Index (CHI)Kamps JL, Roberts MC, Varela RE. Development of a new fear of hypoglycemia scale: preliminary results. J Pediatr Psychol 2005;30:287–291Designed to assess FoH (25 items)Youth (ages 8–16 years) with type 1 diabetes
Cognitive screening in older adultsMini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. “Mini-mental” state: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189–19811-item (30-point) screen for cognitive impairment in adultsAdults (ages 18 – 100 years)
Crum RM, Anthony JC, Bassett SS, Folstein MF. Population-based norms for the Mini-Mental State Examination by age and educational level. JAMA 1993;269:2386–2391
Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS)Brandt J, Spencer M, Folstein M. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 1988;1:111–11711-item measure assessing cognitive status by telephoneAdults (ages 60–98 years)
Brandt J, Folstein MF. Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) Professional Manual. Lutz, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources, 2003
Cognitive assessment toolkitCordell CB, Borson S, Boustani M, et al. Alzheimer's Association recommendations for operationalizing the detection of cognitive impairment during the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit in a primary care setting. Alzheimers Dement 2013;9:141–150Designed for use during a medical office visit to screen for cognitive impairment in older adults (includes informant interviews also)Adults
Chronic painShort-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-2)Dworkin RH, Turk DC, Revicki DA, et al. Development and initial validation of an expanded and revised version of the Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-2). Pain 2009;144:35–4222-item questionnaire designed to assess painAdults
Adherence to self-careSummary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA)Toobert DJ, Hampson SE, Glasgow RE. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure: results from 7 studies and a revised scale. Diabetes Care 2000;23:943–95011-item and expanded 25-item measure of diabetes self-care behaviorsAdults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS-D)Kripalani S, Risser J, Gatti ME, Jacobson TA. Development and evaluation of the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS) among low-literacy patients with chronic disease. Value Health 2009;12:118–12311-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess the extent to which patients take and refill their diabetes-related medicationsAdults
Mayberry LS, Gonzalez JS, Wallston KA, Kripalani S, Osborn CY. The ARMS-D outperforms the SDSCA, but both are reliable, valid, and predict glycemic control. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2013;102:96–104
Barriers to diabetes adherenceMulvaney SA, Hood KK, Schlundt DG, et al. Development and initial validation of the barriers to diabetes adherence measure for adolescents. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011;94:77–8321-item self-report questionnaire designed to assess barriers to diabetes self-care behaviorsAdolescents (ages 12–17 years) with diabetes