Table 1

Characteristics of women with diabetes included in the study cohort by type of contraceptive used

Type of contraceptive*
CharacteristicAll women (n = 146,080)None (n = 139,358)Progestin (n = 8,250)Estrogen-containing (n = 35,361)
Age first treated for diabetes, years
 14–197,813 (5.4)7,605 (5.5)257 (3.1)3,117 (8.8)
 20–248,834 (6.1)8,239 (5.9)839 (10.2)4,387 (12.4)
 25–2918,118 (12.4)16,999 (12.2)1,804 (21.9)7,524 (21.3)
 30–3428,727 (19.7)27,217 (19.5)2,287 (27.7)8,639 (24.4)
 35–3939,512 (27.1)37,834 (27.2)2,016 (24.4)7,163 (20.3)
 40–4443,076 (29.5)41,464 (29.8)1,047 (12.7)4,531 (12.8)
Medical history
 Advanced diabetes 25,590 (17.5)24,442 (17.5)1,522 (18.5)5,878 (16.6)
 Hyperlipidemia (ICD-9 272.0–272.4)38,068 (26.1)36,112 (25.9)1,846 (22.4)9,082 (25.7)
 Hypertension (ICD-9 401–405)50,798 (34.8)48,498 (34.8)2,579 (31.3)9,977 (28.2)
 Cancer (ICD-9 140–208)3,133 (2.1)2,985 (2.1)152 (1.8)692 (2.0)
 Smoking9,950 (6.8)9,622 (6.9)613 (7.4)1,746 (4.9)
 Obesity49,954 (34.2)47,941 (34.4)3,259 (39.5)12,607 (35.7)
 Charlson Comorbidity Index, median (range)2.0 (1.0–23.0)2.0 (1.0–23.0)2.0 (1.0–17.0)2.0 (1.0–18.0)
Years in category describing contraceptive use, median (range)2.7 (<0.1 to 10.2)2.4 (<0.1 to 10.1)0.8 (<0.1 to 10.0)0.8 (<0.1 to 10.1)
Number with TE3,0122,43195486
Woman-time in years478,650421,47011,39345,787
Crude rates of TE per 1,000 woman-years6.35.88.310.6
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • TE, thromboembolism.

  • *Women prescribed two different types of contraception during the study period appear twice in this table.

  • †The progestin-only group includes all women using IUDs, although some IUDs may have contained copper instead of levonorgestrel.