Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the KORA F4 study population stratified by incidence of DSPN

VariableNo incident DSPN (n = 397)Incident DSPN (n = 133)P value
Age (years)67.9 ± 4.670.2 ± 5.0<0.001
Sex (%)0.171
 Male49.155.6
 Female50.944.4
BMI (kg/m2)27.6 ± 3.829.1 ± 4.0<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)94.7 ± 11.399.8 ± 11.4<0.001
Height (cm)166 ± 9167 ± 90.031
HbA1c (% [mmol/mol])5.68 ± 0.50 [39 ± 6]5.82 ± 0.68 [40 ± 7]0.028
Glucose tolerance status (%)0.689
 NGT45.137.6
 IFG21.420.3
 IGT9.110.5
 IFG and IGT9.611.3
 Newly diagnosed T2D5.55.3
 Known T2D9.315.0
Hypertension (%)*56.266.20.316
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.16 ± 0.854.83 ± 0.610.203
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/L)1.31 (0.96, 1.75)1.45 (1.03, 2.05)0.462
Use of lipid-lowering drugs (% yes)23.225.60.866
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)80.3 ± 13.177.0 ± 14.10.458
Smoking (%)0.003
 Never51.955.6
 Former42.333.1
 Current5.811.3
Alcohol intake (%)0.070
 None30.530.1
 Moderate60.555.6
 High9.114.3
Physically active (%)62.242.90.001
Myocardial infarction (%)5.06.80.880
Neurological conditions that might cause nerve damage (%)14.721.10.041
Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (%)1.02.30.385
MNSI2.0 (0.5, 2.0)2.0 (2.0, 2.5)<0.001
hs-CRP (mg/L)1.31 (0.70, 2.52)1.60 (0.76, 3.42)0.023
IL-6 (pg/mL)1.33 (0.94, 1.96)1.71 (1.23, 2.50)<0.001
IL-18 (pg/mL)306 (250, 402)325 (254, 416)0.992
TNF-α (pg/mL)1.92 (1.39, 2.74)2.11 (1.60, 3.52)0.013
IL-1RA (pg/mL)224 ± 47240 ± 580.008
sICAM-1 (ng/mL)306 ± 128349 ± 1750.015
Adiponectin (µg/mL)10.15 (6.57, 15.44)9.44 (5.41, 13.58)0.046
Omentin (ng/mL)496 ± 150506 ± 1550.706
  • Data are given as mean ± SD, median (25th, 75th percentiles), or percentages. The P values are derived from logistic regression analysis (likelihood ratio tests comparing models with the respective variable, age, and sex as independent variables with models with age and sex only). All analyses were adjusted for age and sex except associations with age (sex-adjusted only) or sex (age-adjusted only). Biomarkers of subclinical inflammation were log2-transformed before logistic regression.

  • IFG, impaired fasting glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; NGT, normal glucose tolerance; T2D, type 2 diabetes.

  • *Blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medication, given that the subjects were aware of being hypertensive.

  • †Individuals using lipid-lowering drugs were excluded (n = 123).

  • ‡Except acetylsalicylic acid when used as platelet aggregation inhibitor.