Table 1

Characteristics of Medicare and comparison groups prior to (2000–2005) and after (2006–2011) Medicare Part D

Medicare coverage statusPre-Part D (2000–2005)Post-Part D (2006–2011)
TotalPart D enrolleesNon-Part D enrollees
Sample size (n)Medicare1,9162,7481,5581,190
Comparison1,0951,843
Age (years)Medicare73.7 (0.2)74.0 (0.2)74.1 (0.2)73.8 (0.2)
Comparison55.1 (0.1)55.2 (0.1)
Women, % (SE)Medicare56.0 (1.3)54.5 (1.1)59.7 (1.6)49.1 (1.7)
Comparison48.4 (1.2)47.9 (1.4)
Race, % (SE)Medicare
 White69.0 (1.5)70.3 (1.3)62.3 (1.7)78.5 (1.6)
 Black13.8 (1.0)13.0 (0.9)15.1 (1.1)10.8 (1.0)
 Hispanic10.8 (1.0)10.4 (0.8)15.6 (1.2)5.1 (0.7)
 Other races6.3 (1.0)6.2 (0.8)6.9 (0.9)5.6 (1.2)
Comparison
 White60.6 (2.0)59.4 (1.6)
 Black16.7 (1.4)15.5 (1.1)
 Hispanic13.7 (1.2)15.5 (1.1)
 Other races8.9 (1.6)9.6 (1.0)
Charlson comorbidity indexMedicare0.9 (0.04)1.2 (0.04)1.2 (0.05)1.2 (0.06)
Comparison0.4 (0.04)0.5 (0.03)
Health insurance coverage, % (SE)Medicare
 Medicare with private supplemental50.4 (1.5)50.2 (1.4)30.9 (1.8)70.1 (1.6)
 Medicare only or Medicare + Medicaid49.6 (1.5)49.8 (1.4)69.1 (1.8)29.9 (1.6)
Comparison
 Private76.7 (1.6)74.5 (1.2)
 Medicaid13.2 (1.3)12.7 (0.9)
 Uninsured10.1 (0.9)12.8 (0.9)
Problems accessing prescribed medicines, % (SE)Medicare4.4 (1.5)2.1 (0.3)2.9 (0.5)1.3 (0.4)
Comparison2.8 (1.2)5.5 (0.7)
Delays getting prescribed medicines, % (SE)Medicare8.5 (2.3)4.7 (0.5)6.1 (0.8)3.4 (0.6)
Comparison7.6 (2.2)7.7 (0.9)
Total pharmacy costs ($)Medicare3,213.5 (81.8)4,041.9 (116.0)4,120.3 (148.1)3,961.2 (192.8)
Comparison3,007.5 (102.3)3,433.3 (185.0)
Out-of-pocket costs for prescription drugs ($)Medicare1,589.4 (50.0)984.4 (38.1)953.1 (51.9)1,016.6 (55.3)
Comparison1,036.4 (50.2)938.2 (128.5)
Proportion of out-of-pocket pharmacy costs, % (SE)Medicare51.4 (0.9)29.2 (0.5)26.5 (0.7)32.0 (0.8)
Comparison40.6 (1.1)37.7 (0.8)
  • Data are mean (SE), unless stated otherwise. Data in boldface type indicate statistical differences (P < 0.05) between Medicare and comparison groups or between Part D and non-Part D groups. All dollar values adjusted to the first half of 2013 U.S. dollar values. Data weighted to reflect the national Medicare and non-Medicare U.S. population.