Table 1

Characteristics of RCTs included in the meta-analysis

Author, yearStudy design/duration (weeks)Study drug/patients (n)Comparator/patients (n)Background therapyHbA1c outcomeBaseline HbA1c (%) (mmol/mol) interventional/comparatorStudy funder
Buse et al., 2011R, DB, P/30Exenatide 10 μg twice daily/138Placebo/123Glargine ± metformin, pioglitazone, or bothHbA1c levels at week 308.3/8.5 (67/69)Eli Lilly-Amylin Pharmaceuticals
DeVries et al., 2012R, O, P/26Detemir/162No detemir/161Metformin + liraglutideChange in HbA1c to week 267.6/7.6 (60/60)Novo Nordisk
Seino et al., 2012R, DB, P/24Lixisenatide 20 μg/154Placebo/157Basal insulin ± sulfonylureaChange in HbA1c to week 248.5/8.5 (69/69)Sanofi
Riddle et al., 2013R, DB, P/24Lixisenatide 20 μg/328Placebo/167Basal insulin ± metforminChange in HbA1c to week 248.4/8.4 (68/68)Sanofi
Riddle et al., 2013R, DB, P/24Lixisenatide 20 μg/223Placebo/223Glargine plus metformin, ± pioglitazoneChange in HbA1c to week 247.6/7.6 (60/60)Sanofi
Ahmann et al., 2015R, DB, P/26Liraglutide 1.8 mg/226Placebo/225Basal insulin ± metforminChange in HbA1c to week 268.2/8.3 (66/67)Novo Nordisk
Lind et al., 2015R, DB, P/24Liraglutide 1.8 mg/64Placebo/60MDI ± metforminChange in HbA1c to week 249.0/9.0 (75/75)Novo Nordisk
Aroda et al., 2016R, DB, P/26Degludec/174Placebo/172Metformin + liraglutideChange in HbA1c to week 267.6/7.6 (60/60)Novo Nordisk
Seino et al., 2016R, DB, P/36Liraglutide 0.9 mg/127Placebo/130Basal or premixed or basal-bolus therapyChange in HbA1c to week 168.8/8.8 (73/73)Novo Nordisk
Vanderheiden et al., 2016R, DB, P/24Liraglutide 1.8 mg/35Placebo/36High-dose insulin regimenChange in HbA1c to week 249.0/8.9 (74/75)Novo Nordisk
Li et al., 2012R, O, P/12Liraglutide 1.2 mg/42Up-titration of insulin therapy/42Basal insulin or premixed insulin ± metformin, sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, glinide, or α-glucosidase inhibitorHbA1c levels at week 128.8/8.7 (73/72)National Nature Science Fundation of China
de Wit et al., 2014R, O, P/26Liraglutide 1.8 mg/26Intensification of insulin therapy/24Basal insulin ± bolus insulin or metformin, sulfonylurea, or bothChange in HbA1c to week 267.2/7.5 (55/58)Novo Nordisk
Lane et al., 2014R, O, P/24Liraglutide 1.8 mg/21Up-titration of insulin therapy/16CSII or MDI ± metforminHbA1c at week 247.8/7.8 (62/62)NS
Mathieu et al., 2014R, O, P/26Liraglutide 1.8 mg/88Aspart at largest meal/89Degludec + metforminChange in HbA1c to week 267.7/7.7 (61/61)Novo Nordisk
Rosenstock et al., 2016R, O, P/26Lixisenatide 20 μg/298Glulisine once daily/298, glulisine thrice daily/298Glargine ± metforminChange in HbA1c to week 267.7/7.8/7.7 (61/62/61)Sanofi
Shao et al., 2014R, O, P/12Exenatide 10 μg twice daily/30Aspart thrice daily/30GlargineHbA1c at week 127.6/7.7 (60/61)NS
Rosenstock et al., 2014R, O, P/26Albiglutide 30 mg/282Lispro thrice daily/281Glargine ± metformin, pioglitazone, or bothChange in HbA1c to week 268.5/8.4 (69/70)GlaxoSmithKline
Diamant et al., 2014R, O, P/30Exenatide 10 μg twice daily/315Lispro thrice daily/312Glargine + metforminChange in HbA1c to week 308.3/8.2 (67/66)Eli Lilly-Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca
Blonde et al., 2015R, O, P/52Dulaglutide 1.5 mg/295, dulaglutide 0.75/293Glargine titration/296Prandial lispro ± metforminChange in HbA1c to week 268.5/8.4/8.5 (69/68/69)Eli Lilly
FLAT-SUGAR, 2016R, O, P/26Exenatide 5–10 μg twice daily/52Short-acting insulin analogs thrice daily/50Glargine + metforminChange in HbA1c to week 267.9/7.9 (63/63)Sanofi, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca
Buse et al., 2014R, DB, P/26IDegLira + metformin/207Degludec + metformin titration/206Basal insulin + metformin ± sulfonylurea/glinideChange in HbA1c to week 268.7/8.6 (72/71)Novo Nordisk
Gough et al., 2014R, O, P/26IDegLira/834Degludec titration/414, liraglutide 1.8 mg/415Metformin ± pioglitazoneChange in HbA1c to week 268.3/8.3/8.3 (67/67/67)Novo Nordisk
Lingvay et al., 2016R, O, P/26IDegLira/278Glargine titration/279Glargine + metforminChange in HbA1c to week 268.4/8.2 (68/66)Novo Nordisk
Aroda et al., 2016R, O, P/30IGlarLixi/367Glargine titration/369Glargine + metforminChange in HbA1c to week 308.1/8.1 (65/65)Sanofi
Rosenstock et al., 2016R, O, P/24IGlarLixi/161Glargine titration/162MetforminChange in HbA1c to week 248.1/8.0 (65/64)Sanofi
Rosenstock et al., 2016R, O, P/30IGlarLixi/469Glargine titration/467, lixisenatide 20 μg/234MetforminChange in HbA1c to week 308.1/8.1/8.1 (65/65/65)Sanofi
  • CSII, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; DB, double-blind; MDI, multiple daily injections; NS, not specified; O, open; P, parallel; R, randomized.